Wednesday, March 11, 2020

10 Informative Essay Topics on Art in Late Antiquity

10 Informative Essay Topics on Art in Late Antiquity If you are tasked with writing an informative essay on art in Late Antiquity, review the 10 facts below. These are taken from across the specified time period and across the different movements in art which were revered by religious leaders and the general public alike. Be sure to review all ten in order to find something substantial and ideally suitable for your next writing assignment: Art transformed from the Middle Ages where it focused on bright colors to draw attention to the contrast between the main characters within the artwork in pieces symbolizing of love and sensuality. Painters of the Renaissance period used lighting and the force of contrast and shadow effects, drawing attention to the fact that love has different forms, not just an emotional response but also the love of body and sensuality. The Middle Ages would focus upon the same content, using different artistic ideals to convey sacred ideas. This piece focuses on displaying scenes from the Bible with contrast in lighting meant to reflect the angelic nature of man or prophets to those pieces. During the Middle Ages, the religious movement which came from this transitional period is referred to as â€Å"Modern Devotion† which encouraged people to seek a personal relationship with God through reading and meditating upon the scriptures (Davies 469). Soon there was an artistic movement of stressed Naturalism. This painting is consistent with the themes of the time, indicated by the subject and many other facets. Oil paintings which had a close resemblance to optimal reality became the major artistic style. Roman-based artists were spread throughout Rome and Europe and responded to the conflict with Humanism. Refinement became synonymous with Humanism for the emerging middle class. New definitions of beauty were explored by conscious artists who meant experimenting with ideal figure types, proportions, and unusual compositions. With Late Antiquity there came many changes, including the land conquest lead by Constantine, and after his anointment to power, the promotion of his new religion: Christianity. It is because of his triumph in battle that he had the Church of St. Peter constructed in its honor. This church would have been considered a temple by the Romans and the architecture used for it was typical of Roman public buildings. It assumed the name â€Å"basilica† as it encompassed the architectural traits of a basilica. Another aspect to the changing religious tides were related to the dead. The first centuries of Christianity brought with them the catacombs, or underground network of passages in which to bury the dead. Inside of these buildings were found paintings and artwork on the walls and ceilings which showed scenes of salvation. The catacombs of the Late Antiquity period were underground passageways which were used to bury the dead. Inside of the catacombs were cubicula’s which were small rooms known as mortuary chapels. The Loculi were the openings in the walls where the dead were received. During this period the earliest figure represented across the artwork found in many architectural triumphs and older buildings alike include is Christ in his role as the Good Shepherd. The altar’s location within the churches was significant, typically aligned toward the east. With Late Antiquity architecture, ambulatory was the passageway which surrounded the altar of a church. The apse was the endpoint of that altar’s location. The atrium was the courtyard of the church or of a Roman house. In Christian architecture, having an axially planned church was symbolic of an ideal and this took form in a basilica. From the clerestory, or third window of the church, one might have a better view of the sunken panel located inside of the ceiling, as well as the entrance into catacombs. It was common for a lunette to be present over a doorway, a crescent-shaped space, inside of which paintings or sculptures were held. Some of the more famous sculptures from this period include the Four Tetrarchs, which came from the Late Antiquity period around 305 A.D. The Emperor Diocletian converted the empire of the time into four administrative units each of which were governed by a tetrarch. The porphyry group was shown as all four looking alike in the statues and artwork in order to suggest unity and stability. Constantine was able to defeat the former tetrarch Maxentius during the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. The defeat was captured in the beautiful sculpture. Another sculpture is the colossal head of Constantine, which came from the Late Antiquity period and is dated to between 310 and 330 A.D. His head is like many statues of Constantine which were designed with a message: the open and unblinking eyes were meant to tell his people that he was always watching. One of the more famous large artistic pieces is the Ravenna in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. This mausoleum is covered with a beautiful painting which takes up the lunette over the doorway. It is dated to between 425 and 500 A.D. A piece of famous architecture from this period is the Basilica of Constantine located in Trier in Germany. This building represents a great many of the famous Late Antiquity aspects, including the clerestory, the sunken ceiling panels, the lunette, the apse, and the ambulatory. Churches during this time used a chalice, or cup, during their ceremonies. It was also heavily integrated into the artwork which came from that period. They also used the first four books, or Gospels written by the Four Evangelists. In the artwork from this time period Matthew was construed as an eagle. Mark was painted as a lion. Luke was portrayed as a bull. John was also painted as an eagle. The mausoleums or tombs were another type of building modeled artistically after Roman buildings. They were important because the burials took place outside of the city walls, while Christian churches sought to memorialize the dead and simultaneously show how unimportant the physical body was by incorporating the bodies into the ceremonies. This can be found in many artistic pieces. Purple was the imperial color, something which is seen throughout the artwork from this period. The Porphyry stone was reserved for the emperors because it had that bright purple color so regularly associated with the leadership of the time. These 10 facts should give you a good idea about the art in late antiquity. You may also check our 20 subtopics on this matter and a guide on how to write an informative essay on it. References: Brown, Peter Robert Lamont.  The world of late antiquity, AD 150-750. Harcourt College Pub, 1971. Davies, Penelope. Janson’s History of Art: The Western Tradition (Upper Saddle River, NJ 2006. Doar, Bruce G. The Great Wall of China: Tangible, Intangible and Destructable.China Heritage Newsletter  1 (Mar.-Apr. 2010). Print. Edmunds, Richard L.  Northern Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. Rep. no. 213. Chicago: University of Chicago: Department of Geography, 1985. Print. Fowden, Garth.  Empire to commonwealth: consequences of monotheism in late antiquity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. Mathews, Thomas F.  The clash of gods: a reinterpretation of early Christian art. Princeton University Press, 1999. Sambursky, Samuel.  The physical world of late antiquity. Princeton University Press, 2014.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Counting Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Counting Systems - Essay Example There was a certain social status and prestige associated with the use of a counting table. Hindu mathematics presents interesting features of notation. Valuable information on this development is revealed by the Bakhsh'l' Manuscript. First, Hindu Arabic numeral system was mentioned in the 9th century. It is classified as a positional decimal numeral system consisted of symbols (Smith and Karpinski 1911). It has been generally believed that the so-called Arabic numerals, from which arise those in use by us today, were derived by the Muslim peoples from India, and that the Hindus invented (1) the principle of position or place value of the decimal point and (2) the nine digits and zero (or dot). In the astrological treatise written by Ch''-t'an Hsi-ta, who flourished under the T'ang Dynasty in the early eighth century A.D., the so-called Hindu decimal notation and rules are implied, so that they were introduced, or re-introduced into China, at that time or possibly earlier (Datta and Singh 1998). Whereas Hindu astronomy made improvement through Greek influence, mathematics in India, as Professor Sarton has stated, had no need to wait for Hellenism: we are, therefore, at present disinclined to refuse legitimate claims for Hindu originality in respect of the nine numerals and decimal system (Al-Daffa, 1977). "The basic idea of the system is the primacy of grouping (and of the rhythm of the symbols in their regular sequence) in "packets" of tens, hundreds (tens of tens), thousands (tens of tens of tens), and so on" (Ifrah et al. 2000, p. 25). In the Bakhshali Manuscript researchers find a small sign used to represent negative quantity: it is a cross, like the present 'plus' sign, but placed to the right of the quantity to which it refers. Zero is represented by a dot. The dot is also used to indicate an unknown quantity. There is an absence from the Bakshali Manuscript of symbols of operation, even the negative sign already noted not being used as such. In Bhaskara's Bija-Ganita, however, the dot is used as the negative sign of operation (Datta and Singh 1998). Operation is indicated in the Bakhsh'l' Manuscript by an ad hoc term, or by relative position, In general, Hindu mathematicians used the terms "ya" (as many as") for the first unknown quantity, now usually denoted by x; for the second unknown, say y for the constant quantity in an expression; "v or va" for a square and the initial letters of the words representing various colours for other unknown quantities (Al-Daffa, 1977). During his khalifate and later, there flourished Al-Kindi. Al-Kindi, like many eminent scholars of the Middle Ages, was an encyclopedialist, and wrote numerous works on many subjects. He translated extesively from the Greek, and his treatise on geometrical and physiological optics (known in the Latin form as De Aspectibus) was based on the optical works of Euclid, Heron, and Ptolemy. He was interested in large-scale natural phenomena, studying particularly the tides, and also the rainbow ion accordance with the principles of optical reflection. Further, his scientific studies embraced the Hindu numerals and a musical notation relating to pitch (Smith and Karpinski 1911). He was sufficiently far-sighted to regard much alchemy as spurious and non-scientific Eminent among writers on mechanical and mathematical subjects were the three sons of M's' ibn Sh'kir, the Ban' M's', who engaged also the

Saturday, February 8, 2020

The Moral and National Education Controversy in Hong Kong Essay

The Moral and National Education Controversy in Hong Kong - Essay Example Hong Kong is a like a second home for most of the people of China. Irrespective of the fact that China is growing and is open up to the rest of the world, it still faces a restrictive enough present and an uncertain future. This makes them chose to give birth outside of China. Apart from this, some people give birth to their children outside of China to avoid the one child policy. Others do it to reap the benefits of the country the child is born into. This might include, the right to education, freedom to travel, good social services, etc (Birth rights battle: China vs. Hong Kong 2012). This has lead to the plans to adopt Chinese civic education into the Hong Kong public school curriculum. This has created huge sparks of protests among the residents of Hong Kong. They believed that the young minds were being brainwashed’ by the pro-mainland (China) propaganda (National education raises furor in Hong Kong 2012). A ‘Moral and National Education’ subject was introdu ced against which 90,000 people protested on the streets. The controversy inflamed after the government’s National Education Services Centre distributed a booklet to the schools. This booklet was entitled ‘The China Model’. Provocative statements such as China are ruling party is progressive, selfless and united. Events which are integral in China’s history have not been mentioned. ... The idea behind national education is to supplement the original moral education curriculum with that of the national education. Some of the teaching course material that was made public depicted patriotic education being carried out inside China by the Communist Party for years. They argue that the framework of nationalism is being used to address history and culture. People in favor of this subject (Chinese liaisons mainly) supported their stance by arguing that the same is being carried out in the West. The ironic thing is that when it comes to politics, the people of China resolutely decline to follow any of the Western models. Moreover, they argue that in the West, national education is inseparable from their political systems, speech environments and concepts of human rights (China Media Project 2012). People of the National Education Services centre are optimistic about the subject being introduced. They argued that this one subject cannot brainwash the people of Hong Kong as they have access to a lot of information. Protestors argued that how there should be some flexibility regarding the implementation of National Education. Specific lessons to be taught in the classrooms can be chosen. Apart from this, national education can be incorporated as a broader theme. The government has adopted a very broad approach. They did not want to preclude any topic from the curriculum, whereas many critics wanted specific topics to be discussed and not all. Moreover, people believe that the government does not keep a track of what is being taught nor will they supervise anything. A pluralistic approach of teaching the same subject will be adopted. The government

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Economics Commentary - U.S quota reduction on textiles Essay Example for Free

Economics Commentary U.S quota reduction on textiles Essay China is an industrialized country and it exports lots of goods to other country. International trade involves the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries. The country depends on its sales abroad to develop its country. The textile industry is a massive industry in china, depends a lot on its exports to make its profits. But the United States (U.S) also has a text tile industry and so to protect their industry they use quotas to protect its industry. The quota is worth $6 billion annual quota and U.S is reducing its quota on the import of Chinese textiles by $9 million because U.S thinks that China is using a third country to get its goods to U.S. Chinas government is not pleased with this and it is try to protect its industry. U.S is using protectionism, which is the restriction of international trade. It prevents consumers and producers reaching the equilibrium price and quantity that would happen in a free market. One way to enforce protectionism is Quotas take the form of a physical limitation on the quantity of a commodity which is allowed to enter the country in a given year. What U.S is doing to Chinese textiles is that it is dropping its quota by $ p million dollars from the $6 billion annual quota. The world supply falls; and this gives the Chinese firms to supply more to the U.S market, directly. The decrease in the quota also leads to consumer surplus to rise. Consumer surplus is the difference between the prices that a consumer is prepared to pay the actual price paid. This is because the consumers were willing to pay for the Chinese textiles price with the quota and so now it is cheaper. Therefore the consumer surplus rises from ADE to ABC. Consumer surplus which is gained is areas 1, 2, 3 and 4. Area 1 is the loss of domestic producers benefit from selling more at a higher price. Area 3 is the windfall gain; it is part of the revenue that the foreign traders get, in this case China. The total revenue for Chinese textiles sold in the U.S is are area 3, 5, 6 and 7 together, before dropping the quota, area 3 was the only amount that China was allowed to sell. Area 2 and 4 are a net loss to society (deadweight loss). China has comparative advantage over U.S in the textile industry. A country is said to have a comparative advantage in the production of a good if it can produce it at a lower opportunity cost than another country. The labor-intensive industry is one where China has an advantage over other producing nations, therefore China has specialized in the textile industry and they would import other goods into the country. The Chinese officials are not pleased with the quota reducing; this is because the textile industry in China is a strategic industry and is trying to protect it. To protect a strategic industry is to protect an industry that employs a large proportion of the population and/or maybe the industry has strong roots in the country and it contributes to the nations identity. These are the two reasons why China does not like what U.S is doing to them, because other country might lose its trust to China and would try to prevent trading with them. Another reason for China not liking the actions taken by U.S is because china hopes anticipated gains in the textile industry will offset huge losses in employment capacity in other economic sectors. China wants all of its industry to grow at the same time and equally, and so this reduced quota will harm their industries, this is why China takes this matter very seriously. China does not like what U.S has done to their textile industry as this might break trade relations, and this may well be loses for both sides. Their relation would get worse, and then China would retaliate as they want to protect its industry and this would lead to more problems. As exports represent an injection into the circular flow of income and are subjected to the multiplier effect. And also unemployment would rise in other industry within China, and even some firms in U.S, as they might not be able to compete with the Chinese industries.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Physician Assisted Suicide Essays -- Physician Assisted Death

"With the stroke of a pen, California Gov. Jerry Brown made it legal for physicians in the state to prescribe lethal doses of medications if their terminally ill patients wish to end their lives. Brown signed the "End of Life Act" into law on Monday, and in doing so California joins four other states — Oregon, Washington, Vermont and Montana — where patients' right to choose doctor-assisted death is protected either by law or court order." http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/10/05/446115171/california-governor-signs-physician-assisted-suicide-bill-into-law Death, despite various definitions of the concept, is an unavoidable part of life in which all persons will one day become acquainted. However one prefers to essentially exist and prolong this event is completely his or her choice. Or is it? What, then, if an individual should choose death itself? Should that person, regardless of the reason for hastening death, be denied assistance if sought after? The concept of physician-assisted suicide has been a topic of debate since the birth of medicine. Controversy even surrounds its name as the term â€Å"suicide† is associated with a form of mental illness and irrational behavior, both of which are to be prevented it if at all possible according to medical obligation (Quill and Greenlaw). Physician assisted death/suicide occurs when a physician provides a medical means of death and instruction to a patient but does not administer the actual cause of death (Lonnquist and Weiss 389-91). This is quite different than the concept of active euthanasia in which a physician directly administers the cause of death. Recognized as far back as the 5th century BCE in the ancient Hippocratic Oath, the origin of this practice cou... ...hy E., and Greenlaw, Jane. "Physician Assisted Death." From Birth to Death and Bench to Clinic: The Hastings Center Bioethics Briefing Book for Journalists, Policymakers, and Campaigns. Garrison: Hastings Center, 2008. 137- 42. Physician Assisted Death. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/BriefingBook/Detail.aspx?id=220 2. 5. Reich, Warren T. "The Hippocratic Oath." Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Revised ed. N.p.: n.p., 1995. University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/hippocratic.html 6. Roberts, John, and Kjellstra, D. Carl. "Jack Kevorkian: A Medical Hero." BMJ. JSTOR, 8 June 1996. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. 7. "Frontline: The Kevorkian Verdict: The Thanatron." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/kevorkian/aboutk/thanatronblurb.html Physician Assisted Suicide Essays -- Physician Assisted Death "With the stroke of a pen, California Gov. Jerry Brown made it legal for physicians in the state to prescribe lethal doses of medications if their terminally ill patients wish to end their lives. Brown signed the "End of Life Act" into law on Monday, and in doing so California joins four other states — Oregon, Washington, Vermont and Montana — where patients' right to choose doctor-assisted death is protected either by law or court order." http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/10/05/446115171/california-governor-signs-physician-assisted-suicide-bill-into-law Death, despite various definitions of the concept, is an unavoidable part of life in which all persons will one day become acquainted. However one prefers to essentially exist and prolong this event is completely his or her choice. Or is it? What, then, if an individual should choose death itself? Should that person, regardless of the reason for hastening death, be denied assistance if sought after? The concept of physician-assisted suicide has been a topic of debate since the birth of medicine. Controversy even surrounds its name as the term â€Å"suicide† is associated with a form of mental illness and irrational behavior, both of which are to be prevented it if at all possible according to medical obligation (Quill and Greenlaw). Physician assisted death/suicide occurs when a physician provides a medical means of death and instruction to a patient but does not administer the actual cause of death (Lonnquist and Weiss 389-91). This is quite different than the concept of active euthanasia in which a physician directly administers the cause of death. Recognized as far back as the 5th century BCE in the ancient Hippocratic Oath, the origin of this practice cou... ...hy E., and Greenlaw, Jane. "Physician Assisted Death." From Birth to Death and Bench to Clinic: The Hastings Center Bioethics Briefing Book for Journalists, Policymakers, and Campaigns. Garrison: Hastings Center, 2008. 137- 42. Physician Assisted Death. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/BriefingBook/Detail.aspx?id=220 2. 5. Reich, Warren T. "The Hippocratic Oath." Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Revised ed. N.p.: n.p., 1995. University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/hippocratic.html 6. Roberts, John, and Kjellstra, D. Carl. "Jack Kevorkian: A Medical Hero." BMJ. JSTOR, 8 June 1996. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. 7. "Frontline: The Kevorkian Verdict: The Thanatron." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/kevorkian/aboutk/thanatronblurb.html

Monday, January 13, 2020

Government Control and Subsidy of Energy vs. Private Sector Investment Essay

A subsidy is a payment from the government to a business to encourage the continual use or development of a technology or product that is considered to be useful or beneficial to the society. Most often, the money (or subsidies) is coming directly from taxpayers. This is where Milton Friedman’s signature phrase, â€Å"there’s no such thing as a free lunch† comes in to play. A unit of a product or service may be free for one person, someone or something is enduring an opportunity cost. Currently, renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power are being subsidized by roughly $24 billion a year because of the perceived environmental benefits that go along with â€Å"green† technologies. However, renewable energy companies such as Solyndra have gone bankrupt and the government has supported them to keep them running via subsidies. The argument for continuing these subsidies is that wind and solar are still in the start-up phase in the industrial world a nd have not yet reached large scale markets. Unfortunately, it is highly unlikely that these companies will ever be largely profitable because renewable energy, with a few exclusions, are unable to reach the profitable market margin that generating plants fueled by coal, natural gas or nuclear can. While the government tries to focus their support on said renewable energies, only providing limited tax breaks for the private oil companies, the US private sector has produced a substantial increase in oil. 2011 was the third consecutive year of higher domestic oil production and, at the same time, natural gas output reached an all-time high. Over the past five years, about two thousand new jobs have been created in the oil and gas industry while employment growth for renewable energies has been limited at best. With many of the recent failures of several renewable energy companies, employment has declined in this area during several periods. The renewable industry will also struggle to prosper because they rely too heavily on the government for support. The government has taken billions of dollars and will place it in this industry with little to no return for the enrichment of the economy and society. Friedman makes a rather sarcastic comment on activities like this by saying, â €Å"If you put the federal government in charge of the Sahara Desert, in 5 years there’d be a shortage of sand†. This is an example of rent-seeking. Rent-seeking is a term, used by economists, to describe actions that involve a political process of taking wealth of others and getting essentially a loss of wealth. Without the incentive to compete to raise and gain money, the renewable energy industry doesn’t feel the need to produce more efficient and cost effective products or services. On the flip side of that, since most companies in the oil industry are in the private sector, the profit alone is a large enough incentive to supply valued goods and services at reasonable prices. If private sector companies do not continually improve or develop, they will quickly be â€Å"weeded out†. Since the private markets are decidedly competitive, they are continually searching for the sweet spot in the market that assures a large and readily available supply of energy and the cleanest yet practicable balance of the usage of our limited resources, all at the lowest price possible. Despite the fact that for more than a decade, there has been a large amount direct taxpayer support, renewable energy still cannot meet the market demand and, therefore, the subsidies for these areas should be significantly reduced if not completely done away with. If politicians are truly concerned with cutting greenhouse gas emissions, a better allocation of federal spending would be to target subsidies and incentives towards natural gas and nuclear power plants. These clean-burning fuels can heat our homes, power our vehicles, and generate electricity for America’s households and industries a lot more cheaply and reliably than renewable energy can. If America is not careful, it will quickly fall into crony capitalism. Crony capitalism, in layman terms, is where private businesses focus on doing political favors rather than the consumer market because the government uses spending, regulations, and subsidies to benefit businesses that provide political support. Instead of trying to pick winners and losers, the government should create a competitive marketplace with fair rules, no subsidies, and allow the private sector to prosper. One great aspect of America is the freedom to continuously change business strategies and marketing to adapt to change. Like Milton Friedman said, â€Å"Many people want the government to protect the consumer. A much more urgent problem is to protect the consumer from the government.†

Sunday, January 5, 2020

King Lear - Power Corrupts Essay - 773 Words

Power is the ability to manipulate and control whatever one desires; to do what one pleases to do without answering to authority. The power that corrupts the characters plays an extensive role throughout Shakespeare’s play, King Lear. Goneril and Regan are corrupted by the power that Lear offers them. Edmund’s corruption comes from the trust of his father. Absolute power corrupts absolutely with the characters, because once have full control, they are so cold that they will do anything to keep the power – or to gain more. The quest for power corrupts, but when absolute power is attained, treachery and deceit is the only path to take. The power that Lear gives to Goneril and Regan makes them treacherous and deceitful. Lear offers his†¦show more content†¦Regan is no better, when Lear comes to her door looking for a place to stay, â€Å"the old man and’s people cannot me well bestowed.† (2, 4, 330-331) That if Lear wants to stay then he has to give up his followers. The power corrupts them into treacherous beings, where respect and honor for their father are less important than their own well-being. The power that makes Edmund corrupt is trust. He uses the trust to manipulate and control his father for the benefit of himself. He frames his brother by composing a false letter to his father implicating a plot to kill Gloucester, that when â€Å"our father would sleep till I waked him, you should enjoy half his revenue forever.† (1, 2, 55-56) Gloucester replies with â€Å"this villain of mine comes under the prediction of mine: there’s son against father† (1, 2, 112-117) This shows that Gloucester had great faith and trust in his son Edgar. To better his plan he goes to Edgar and convinces him to run away. The thought that he would frame his own brother for the chance to gain power shows his corruption, and that he will do anything to have more power. Edmund writes another letter, except this implicates his father in a plot with France to kill The Duke of Cornwall. He does this so that â€Å"the younger rises [and] the old doth fall† (3, 4, 25) and he wi ll become the Earl. Edmund is so corrupted and blinded by his quest for power that he is willing to jeopardize his father’sShow MoreRelatedKing Lear - Power Corrupts798 Words   |  4 PagesPower is the ability to manipulate and control whatever one desires; to do what one pleases to do without answering to authority. The power that corrupts the characters plays an extensive role throughout Shakespeares play, King Lear. Goneril and Regan are corrupted by the power that Lear offers them. Edmunds corruption comes from the trust of his father. 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