Monday, February 24, 2020

Counting Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Counting Systems - Essay Example There was a certain social status and prestige associated with the use of a counting table. Hindu mathematics presents interesting features of notation. Valuable information on this development is revealed by the Bakhsh'l' Manuscript. First, Hindu Arabic numeral system was mentioned in the 9th century. It is classified as a positional decimal numeral system consisted of symbols (Smith and Karpinski 1911). It has been generally believed that the so-called Arabic numerals, from which arise those in use by us today, were derived by the Muslim peoples from India, and that the Hindus invented (1) the principle of position or place value of the decimal point and (2) the nine digits and zero (or dot). In the astrological treatise written by Ch''-t'an Hsi-ta, who flourished under the T'ang Dynasty in the early eighth century A.D., the so-called Hindu decimal notation and rules are implied, so that they were introduced, or re-introduced into China, at that time or possibly earlier (Datta and Singh 1998). Whereas Hindu astronomy made improvement through Greek influence, mathematics in India, as Professor Sarton has stated, had no need to wait for Hellenism: we are, therefore, at present disinclined to refuse legitimate claims for Hindu originality in respect of the nine numerals and decimal system (Al-Daffa, 1977). "The basic idea of the system is the primacy of grouping (and of the rhythm of the symbols in their regular sequence) in "packets" of tens, hundreds (tens of tens), thousands (tens of tens of tens), and so on" (Ifrah et al. 2000, p. 25). In the Bakhshali Manuscript researchers find a small sign used to represent negative quantity: it is a cross, like the present 'plus' sign, but placed to the right of the quantity to which it refers. Zero is represented by a dot. The dot is also used to indicate an unknown quantity. There is an absence from the Bakshali Manuscript of symbols of operation, even the negative sign already noted not being used as such. In Bhaskara's Bija-Ganita, however, the dot is used as the negative sign of operation (Datta and Singh 1998). Operation is indicated in the Bakhsh'l' Manuscript by an ad hoc term, or by relative position, In general, Hindu mathematicians used the terms "ya" (as many as") for the first unknown quantity, now usually denoted by x; for the second unknown, say y for the constant quantity in an expression; "v or va" for a square and the initial letters of the words representing various colours for other unknown quantities (Al-Daffa, 1977). During his khalifate and later, there flourished Al-Kindi. Al-Kindi, like many eminent scholars of the Middle Ages, was an encyclopedialist, and wrote numerous works on many subjects. He translated extesively from the Greek, and his treatise on geometrical and physiological optics (known in the Latin form as De Aspectibus) was based on the optical works of Euclid, Heron, and Ptolemy. He was interested in large-scale natural phenomena, studying particularly the tides, and also the rainbow ion accordance with the principles of optical reflection. Further, his scientific studies embraced the Hindu numerals and a musical notation relating to pitch (Smith and Karpinski 1911). He was sufficiently far-sighted to regard much alchemy as spurious and non-scientific Eminent among writers on mechanical and mathematical subjects were the three sons of M's' ibn Sh'kir, the Ban' M's', who engaged also the

Saturday, February 8, 2020

The Moral and National Education Controversy in Hong Kong Essay

The Moral and National Education Controversy in Hong Kong - Essay Example Hong Kong is a like a second home for most of the people of China. Irrespective of the fact that China is growing and is open up to the rest of the world, it still faces a restrictive enough present and an uncertain future. This makes them chose to give birth outside of China. Apart from this, some people give birth to their children outside of China to avoid the one child policy. Others do it to reap the benefits of the country the child is born into. This might include, the right to education, freedom to travel, good social services, etc (Birth rights battle: China vs. Hong Kong 2012). This has lead to the plans to adopt Chinese civic education into the Hong Kong public school curriculum. This has created huge sparks of protests among the residents of Hong Kong. They believed that the young minds were being brainwashed’ by the pro-mainland (China) propaganda (National education raises furor in Hong Kong 2012). A ‘Moral and National Education’ subject was introdu ced against which 90,000 people protested on the streets. The controversy inflamed after the government’s National Education Services Centre distributed a booklet to the schools. This booklet was entitled ‘The China Model’. Provocative statements such as China are ruling party is progressive, selfless and united. Events which are integral in China’s history have not been mentioned. ... The idea behind national education is to supplement the original moral education curriculum with that of the national education. Some of the teaching course material that was made public depicted patriotic education being carried out inside China by the Communist Party for years. They argue that the framework of nationalism is being used to address history and culture. People in favor of this subject (Chinese liaisons mainly) supported their stance by arguing that the same is being carried out in the West. The ironic thing is that when it comes to politics, the people of China resolutely decline to follow any of the Western models. Moreover, they argue that in the West, national education is inseparable from their political systems, speech environments and concepts of human rights (China Media Project 2012). People of the National Education Services centre are optimistic about the subject being introduced. They argued that this one subject cannot brainwash the people of Hong Kong as they have access to a lot of information. Protestors argued that how there should be some flexibility regarding the implementation of National Education. Specific lessons to be taught in the classrooms can be chosen. Apart from this, national education can be incorporated as a broader theme. The government has adopted a very broad approach. They did not want to preclude any topic from the curriculum, whereas many critics wanted specific topics to be discussed and not all. Moreover, people believe that the government does not keep a track of what is being taught nor will they supervise anything. A pluralistic approach of teaching the same subject will be adopted. The government