Monday, September 30, 2019
Taiwan, my mother country, though suffering under complicated identification obscurity, is still applying Chinese culture and values. We still commemorate Chinese New Year, QingMing Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, and so forth. We still believe in Confucianism and Chinese ethic moral rules like Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" , Ã¢â¬ , to name but a few. In addition, we also share the similar diet culture, since our staple food mostly based on rice and noodles. There are surplus parallels between Taiwanese culture and those adopted in the mother China even though weÃ¢â¬â¢ve been separated geographically for centuries. Though Taiwan is politically independent from China, as a Chinese, I would still accept the perspective that IÃ¢â¬â¢m belonging to part of the Great Chinese Culture Region( ), as we can call it Ã¢â¬Å"Chinese FamilyÃ¢â¬ . Although modern technology and knowledge keep flourishing, people nowadays may think that western culture somehow influence people more, included religion believing , fast food culture, insight of democracy and freedom, western literature, and so on. However, as a Chinese, I canÃ¢â¬â¢t deny that Chinese culture did affect our daily living physically and mentally. Many values originated from the ancient people and philosophers, included those in ,,,, still maintain clear and essential in our mind , since we have been taught to follow the concept and the worship the good deeds those ancient sages and virtuous, like Confucius, Zhuangzi, Mencius, Yao and Shun( )Ã¢â¬ ¦ have conducted. Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" , , Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ these values not only affect the way Chinese people think, but also become a sub consciousness which lead to the way we live. As we often emphasis the importance of studying, Chinese parents are willing to spent their whole life working hard so their children can accept better education because they believe the sayings, Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" , Ã¢â¬ . In contrary, western families take less focus on their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s academic performance; they would rather think that children should seek out their interest instead of obtaining all A grades at school. Furthermore, it would also affect how parents educate their children, and this educating concept would pass on by generations. And the phenomenon is just the same in Taiwan as that in Mainland. As most Chinese parents always believe and hope their children to be the best( , ), they usually devote more than western parents do, just to provide the best resources for their children. This may somehow spoil a child, too. As Chinese family often pass their fortune to their descendants, rather than considering parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ fortune as their own, offspring of a wealthy family may no longer eager to achieve his own life goal and seek his own fortune. In contrary, western children usually gain their own fortune by their hand, on their own, which is considered more independent and responsible. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a real story of a business man. Because heÃ¢â¬â¢s so busy and so was his wife, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve decided to send their 13 years old son to New Zealand for a couple of months, and there was a friend named Marry, who could take care of their child. When the child met Marry, the first thing she said was, Ã¢â¬Å"Listen, my sweet heart, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll like to notice you that IÃ¢â¬â¢m here only to take care of your living, but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean I should make you breakfast, do your laundries and dishes, you should do it all by yourself. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re now 13, which is definitely able to start taking care of yourself. Parents arenÃ¢â¬â¢t responsible to look after your whole life; thus, you should be independent from now on. You live your life and I do mine own business, is that clear enough? Ã¢â¬ After 6 months, while the business man and his wife picked their son back from New Zealand, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re totally stunned; their son had changed thoroughly mature. He began to make breakfast, woke up early himself and was able to schedule his own life, which he never did before. This dramatically change simply based on how western and eastern parents educate their children. As a result, it leads to the circumstance that western children are usually more independent. In addition, the value of women rights also maintain deeply in Chinese peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, though we are now in a world advocating gender equality. Even nowadays, some people still believe the concept Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" , , Ã¢â¬ , but mostly the elders. Thanks to the revolution New Culture Movement ( ) brought to the Chinese society. People started to explore and accept new technology and knowledge, not only the perception of Democracy() and Science( ), but also the new century values. For instance, in the old days, women are forced to bound their feet from their young ages, so that their feet may look tiny and delicate, which ancient Chinese regarded as sexy and beauty. They even worshiped tiny feet as Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ . This social usage only happened in the upper classes which higher status women did not need to deal with tuff tasks that rural area women did. On the other hand, it also lead to the phenomenon that women were having lower social position than men were. But after the New Culture Movement and other further revolutions, women gradually stopped to suffer from the pain bounding feet brought to them, and started to handle more housework; little by little, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s social status had been raised. When it comes to the argument of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right and discrimination, itÃ¢â¬â¢s no doubt that Chinese ancient culture and concept have deeply influenced the way the majority behaves. Not only in Mainland, but also the whole Chinese cultural region, included Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, and other South East Asian countries. Take Japan as an example, Japanese girls are well known for their virtuous behavior, while men are quite accustomed to chauvinism( ). This may be somewhat resulted from the old sayings originated from China; for instance, Ã¢â¬Å" , Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , and so on. However, women status obviously do rise in this century, modern parents may be more willing to give birth to a girl because they may think girls are sweeter than boys, ignoring the stereotype that having a boy is better than a girl. This stereotype is resulted from the traditional custom that boys are able to pass the family name, while girls no longer belongs to the family after theyÃ¢â¬â¢re married. Plus, this is also a chief reason why ancient Chinese family sent a boy to school rather than a girl, cause only when a boy achieve high social status after , will the whole family gain benefits. Thus, brought out a novel which the feminine role have to disguise herself as a guy so as to be able to pursue education. We can see that phenomenon changes not only in giving birth to a baby, but also in education providing. In the old times, there were mostly boys that could access complete education instead of girls, but now, we may even discover that the numbers of girls are surprisingly higher than boys. Which some researches declaim that itÃ¢â¬â¢s because girls are innately more careful and thoughtful than boys are. The case is similar in industries and working places, more and more Ã¢â¬Å"Iron ladiesÃ¢â¬ exist and keep on controlling the whole company, which may be more success than men. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more thereÃ¢â¬â¢re even throngs of specific phrases for modern women, like Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ (which refers to women that havenÃ¢â¬â¢t married but are successful in their carriers), and so forth. There is an awkward circumstance that women in upper social status are mostly unmarried, and so as men within lower social status. This is due to two main reasons; first, women education is relatively emphasized than that in the past; second, traditional concept has that a woman should marry a man better than she is. As the result, a woman graduated from high school may marry a man finished college studying; woman finished college studying may marry a guy accomplished graduated school; woman accomplished graduated school marry a PHD guy; and a PHD woman may marry a professor; then who will a female professor marry? Obviously not a guy graduated from high school! This worrying case lead to a sad ending, which then somehow may strictly proofed the saying Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ . However, to my opinion, I think this is a controversial issue because being married involves mostly on love itself, we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t blame it all to the Chinese cultural effects. But frankly speaking, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t ignore truth that these old sayings somehow match to the phenomena weÃ¢â¬â¢re now facing. Even though women are now capable enough to compare with men in industry fields, there still exist Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ , which means however hard women try, the promotion rate and the salaries are relatively lower than that of menÃ¢â¬â¢s. This may also be an outcome of the Chinese stereotypes that men are more capable then women are when it comes to work. For conclusion, old Chinese concepts really influence modern society deeply in an unmeasurable degree. All in all, although ancient Chinese empires had faded into history, glorious kingdoms had turned into dust, brilliant philosophy of ancient saints only exist in books now, the influence they brought to this Chinese world still remain and just couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be erased from our mind. Chinese culture and ancient concepts couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be ignored. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re now the biggest part of our life because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re what we come from, and what foster us. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s our soul, our mother characteristic. Also, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re things that allow us to identify ourselves as a member of this huge Ã¢â¬Å"Chinese FamilyÃ¢â¬ . And because itÃ¢â¬â¢s uniqueness and specialties, weÃ¢â¬â¢re always able to find our loyalties. In this complex culture integrated world, finding a sense of belonging is really important, because it may make us feel comfortable and gleeful to be part of this big family. We can even say that, without Chinese culture, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t be who we are now. Cherish our culture and maintain it well so as to pass the Chinese spirit on and on is what our generation should do. Despite of focusing and arguing on whether IÃ¢â¬â¢m a Taiwanese or a Chinese, ItÃ¢â¬â¢s more vital and meaningful to define myself as a member part of Chinese culture. IÃ¢â¬â¢m from Taiwan, and IÃ¢â¬â¢m a Chinese. IÃ¢â¬â¢m proud of my identity; IÃ¢â¬â¢m proud of this Chinese family I belong to. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s where my mind and spirit mature, where my ancestor struggled for their lives and for the next generation, for us.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
8. How can the dream at the end of the story be related to the major incidents that precede it? The dream at the end of the story is about the circus with his grandfather. He refused to laugh at the clowns no matter what they did. There is a relationship between clowns at circus and the black boy in battle royal. They are forced to entertain the white man and are treated as if they are no better than animal. The seemingly endless series of envelopes implies that inequality still continue for a long time until black man fall of weariness and white society will continue to create clowns for their entertainment. 9. Given the grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s advice, explain how Ã¢â¬Å"meeknessÃ¢â¬ can be a Ã¢â¬Å"dangerous activityÃ¢â¬ and a weapon against oppression. In the death bed the grandfather told his son as well as his grandson keep up a good fight. Ã¢â¬Å"Live with your head in the lionÃ¢â¬â¢s mouthÃ¢â¬ , the grandfather want his son to prepare for himself a mask of meekness, overcome white persons with yeses, underline them with grins, agree them to death and destruction. This meekness is considered as dangerous activity because their family as well as many black men in recent society is controlled and oppressed by the white man. Becoming the whiteÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite is the only way to survive. However meekness is not the same as surrender, it seems to be a shield to conceal a deeper revolutionary spirit. The grandfather bequeathed to his grandson not only strategy to live with Ã¢â¬Å"the lionÃ¢â¬ but also a weapon against oppression.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The Dim Lighting is facing a major decision. They are deciding whether or not to undertake a new project. This project is an extremely costly and time consuming one but on the other hand it may bring great benefits to the company. There are many considerations that are going into the big decision. Jim West is the general manager of the Dim Lighting Company and is thinking over all the ideas and alternatives. There are some problems that deal with the company as a whole. Does the company want to wait until they are Ã¢â¬Å"going downÃ¢â¬ to think of new innovations? The company knows that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t just sit without change. In an ever changing market, a company that wants to be successful must keep up with change. On the other hand, investing in a major project when the company isnÃ¢â¬â¢t in the best financial form may not be so beneficial as well. In theory the company may want to react to the situation but in practice they just donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the means. There are some problems micro problems with innovation as well. Firstly, it is possible that Spinks has a major influence on the decision because of his autocratic personality. The other managers know that Spinks is a vital member and losing him may really hurt the company. Their decision may be swayed to satisfy Spinks. Another issue on the micro scale is WestÃ¢â¬â¢s needs for a profitable year. Jim West needs to see the company profitable after a year of slowed profit. This may cause his decision to be biased. There are a few causes that may lead to a change in the company. Firstly is the need for an additional source of income. The company needs to come up with new ways to bring in income and a new innovation look like a great way. Another cause may be the need for new innovation after the same product type has been sold for many years. The workers may be itching for a change and grab the first possible moment. Lastly, the cause for the change may be the overbearing personality of Mr. Spinks. A change like this one can really affect the entire sociotechnical system of a company. Obviously, the technical subsystem of the company would be changed to focus on outputting a new product. In addition, the company currently has a traditional structure if indeed the change does take place the structure will change. As far as the psychosocial subsystem, there are some behavioral problems displayed in the case that can really have a negative effect on the company. The stubbornness of Spinks is just one example of such a behavior. The goals and values of the company and parent company seem to be making income with no need for innovation. The parent company didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to support this change. If the change is made the whole goal of the company will be changes. Lastly, the managerial subsystem will be affected as well. The way the management deals with things will be altered for good. (Brown, 2011) There are some alternative plans that West should consider. Firstly, West should consider a compromise with Spinks and his proposed plans. He can suggest that the project be spread over four years instead of two. He can also tell Spinks that he had to lower the budget a little to make the project feasible. Another option would be to find a private investor. There are people who will invest in new products in the hope of gaining from the profits. If there is a private investor, the company will not make as much profit but at the same time they will save millions on research and development. One last idea, the company can lay out the benefits and pluses of the new product and represent it to the parent company. Perhaps the company will decide to contribute to the funds. There are a few things that should be recommended to West. Firstly, he needs to be very cautious around Spinks. He needs Spinks in the company because of his many attributes. He needs to validate Spinks and be sure to work with him and not against him. Angering Spinks may lead to his resignation, which would be a big loss for the company. West also needs to be told that he needs to think long term. He needs to put aside a one year income improvement and look at the long term picture. I would recommend that West meet with an external practitioner to discuss the issues. The practitioner can talk to all the managers, hear them all out, and then help the company make the best decision possible. An external practitioner is one that comes from a different viewpoint and position of objectivity. ( Zainbooks. com) Lastly, I would suggest that West be sure to do some morale boosting activities during this time. It is a stressful time for all those in the company and West needs to make sure that it has no effect on the employees and managers. Conclusion: This case was a real eye opener for me. I have not been in the business world for long and never at a managerial level. This case showed me how real issues come up and people can be very influential. This case also showed me the importance of consulting a practitioner when issues that are large come up. I also saw the amount of time and consideration that goes into every step that a business takes. It was a great case to display the needs for organizational development in the business world. References: Brown, Donald R. (2011). An Experiential Approach to Organization Development. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. www. Zainbooks.com, The Organization Development Practitioner, http://www.zainbooks.com/books/management/organization-development_10_the-organization-development-practitioner.html, April 4, 2011
Friday, September 27, 2019
The story of an Hour, by Kate Chapin - Essay Example Most of the parts of the story reveal her inner feelings and her wild dreams about her future enjoyment as she lives alone in freedom, showing the effects of the historical background of the theme and setting. The story was written in the last decade of the nineteenth century when women were still regarded to have the role of selfless motherhood without any assertion to their needs but to be in full submission to their husbands (enotes.com). This theme is expressed in the sentence Ã¢â¬Å"What could love, the unsolved mystery, count for in the face of this possession of self-assertion which she suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being!Ã¢â¬ The story does not express any other stronger reason for Mrs. MallardÃ¢â¬â¢s joy for the death of her husband but this. Not that she wanted her husband dead but she wanted her freedom more than being placed under someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s authority and is left to no self-identity but the wife of Brently Mallard. Despite her love for her husband which is expressed in the story as inconsistent, and the love of her husband to her which is suggested to be of the same affect in the statement Ã¢â¬Å"Ã the face that had never looked save with love upon herÃ¢â¬ , referring to her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of her, she longed for a freedom that is totally hers. The issue in this story then is her being a wife, commonly regarded to do nothing else but stay in the house, raise children and play the role of a dutiful husband and mother. However, the main character wants more than that, she wanted to have the same freedom as her husband, able to go to places she wanted to and do things she desired and express herself in whatever means available without the power of a man or even his influence to whatever she does. Mrs. Mallard was first presented as a woman with a heart failure which could be symbolic to the disease in her marriage (Myriad). Although love was in the relationship, it seemed to have limited the expression of it by the norms during their existence as suggested by the world they lived in. As mentioned earlier, women were regarded to have lesser rights and are bound in the four corners of the house however, to the heroine, she wanted a different version of her story. She knew her husband loved her as much as she loved him, assuming the Ã¢â¬Ësometimes' she regarded to love him are the same times he looked at her with love yet she wanted more than that. As a human being, she felt the need to socialize, to go out and find herself, see what she could do beyond the walls that are keeping her from the outside world. She wanted to see the beautiful things in this world in an encounter and not just from a distance, through the windows of her room. This was very important matter in the relationship of the couple which was killing their love, as the heart would be the most important part of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body, which when collapses, would kill the person. Her weeping after hearing the news of the death of her husband shows the love she had for her husband, not feeling as other women had in similar circumstances, feeling numb and unable to think clearly, trying to internalize and accept the news. To her, the news reached home and hurt her, so the immediate reaction was her weeping, without regard to who would be watching or what worries would there be about her. Her feelings later show the other side of
Thursday, September 26, 2019
New Small Business Competes With Google, Bing and Yahoo - Essay Example Gabriel Weinberg has established a mechanized that maximizes on the needs of its users, unlike the other search engines. A vast majority of search engines comprise of numerous ads that surround relevant pages, and personalized tracking. Gabriel Weinberg way was different from other search engines. He sought out to address the concerns of consumers that had queries while using these search engines. Gabriel WeinbergÃ¢â¬â¢s search engine proves to be a long time competitor to Google and other search engine. There is factual information to back this reasoning. Currently European and U.S officials have already begun criticizing practices that are considered to be monopolistic in nature. Google and other bigger search have been considered to be selective with regards to their star results. These are considered to favor some businesses and elbow out competitors. Additionally Gabriel Weinberg venture maintains that it will not track its users. A combination of these factors sheds light to the future. It is evident that this search engine will last and still be a long term foe to bigger search engines. As of late, the future holds good tidings for Gabriel Weinberg search engine over established ones. One major fact stands; it is a major threat to bigger search engines. Should Google not review their systems, facts prove that they may not be in
Jeffersonian Era - Essay Example Jefferson argued that the Court was a creation of the Constitution and to give it the power of judicial review would make "its discretion and not the Constitution the measure of its powers." He argued that when the federal government assumed a power not granted to it by the Constitution, each state, as a party to the constitutional compact, had a right to declare the law unconstitutional (see State Sovereignty and States' Rights). He also believed that each branch of the federal government had a coordinate right to resolve questions of constitutionality," ("Thomas Jefferson", p.1). This act taken, with the assistance of fellow politician James Madison, would serve to show Jefferson's view on judicial law, as well as the rights of states. The notion of the states being able to declare a law unconstitutional, if the federal government creates it through such means as assuming power not held within the Constitution, reaches into present day governing in the sense of the 'checks and balances system,' that exists in the present structure of the political system in all facets. Keeping with the notion that all branches of government is on equal footing and as such have the opportunity to answer issues having to do with how a decision, or decisions, fall into the overall framework of the constitutional document itself. As President, "The President's greatest triumph - and his greatest defeat - came in foreign affairs. Spain's cession of Louisiana and the port of New Orleans to France in 1800 posed a serious threat to American security, especially to the aspirations of the West. Jefferson skillfully negotiated this crisis. With the Louisiana Purchase (1803), America gained an uncharted domain of some 800,000 square miles, doubling its size, for $11,250,000. Even before the treaty was signed, Jefferson planned an expedition to explore this country. The Lewis and Clark expedition, like the Louisiana Purchase, was a spectacular consummation of Jefferson's western vision," ("Thomas Jefferson", p.1). With international relations being a pillar of any President's ability to govern skillfully, the acquisition of the Louisiana territory would bode well for Jefferson in this regard. In the current landscape of political campaigning and governance, current politicians promise numerous things. One of those such promises are that of the reduction in taxes for certain portions of the individual citizenry. As a way to revamp the tax system of the time, "When Thomas Jefferson was elected President in 1802, direct taxes were abolished and for the next 10 years there were no internal revenue taxes other than excises," ("Fact Sheets: Taxes", p.1). As taxes are the means of paying for necessary governmental services, there would be other options taken in response to the extraction of internal revenue taxes. Those being, "To raise money for the War of 1812, Congress imposed additional excise taxes, raised certain customs duties, and raised money by issuing Treasury notes. In 1817 Congress repealed these taxes, and for the next 44 years the Federal
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Science and Church - Essay Example He confronted authority and tradition by putting these theories before those of religion. Aristotlianism was the frame of the Christian Science and so rejecting Aristotle means rejecting Christianity. Because of this Rome rejected Galileo's theories and sentenced him to life imprisonment according to several reasons. About these several reasons like authorities, arguments from common sense, dubitability of telescope, the political consequences of this age and these reasons' unreality and illogicality will be argued in this essay. The end of the 16th and the 17th centuries were featured by the scientific revolution greatly brought about by Galileo Galilei. He supported Democritos's theories in opposition to those of Aristotle who had argued that everything that existed in nature has a purpose. Democrito maintained that the universe and its organisms are formed by atoms in a continuous and arbitrary movement. His philosophy was thus founded on observation and not on finalism as was that of Aristotle: on how, not on why. This was in direct collision with the church which ideally supported the Aristotle's philosophy. Galileo asserted that he had managed to show the theory of Coperni... He also had the insight of not only using the telescope to see the planets, but also to use lenses to examine the tinny things of this world, and told his students to do so. This in essence brought about political consequences where by the inquisition threatened him with torture, forced him to recant, and subjected him to life imprisonment in 1633. The charge was "suspicion of heresy" and was after the church had taken the position that if a Biblical interpretation was found to be in conflict with scientific fact, the Bible was to be interpreted metaphorically. Bible teachings caused the church to oppose Galileo's proof that the earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun. Galileo argued that the sun was the centre of the universe which totally differed with common sense as well as the scripture. From common sense perspective, there are only three dimensions in space. All matter in the universe evolves in time, just as explained by Newton. Hence, we can say that the universe is mathematically flat which Galileo proved otherwise. Conclusion The disagreement has been presented tremendously in Galileo's favor. To this date, he is seen as the champion of enlightenment against the blind despotic power of the church. Galileo's "mistake," according to this fascinating study, was not one of science or mathematics, philosophy or religion, but one of diplomacy. Works cited Notes provided by the tutor, a paper by Peter E. Hudgson "Galileo the scientist"
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Management, People and Organization - Essay Example Given below is a list of few of the objective of an organization: Human behavior in organizations is as complex as the social system itself. People differ from each other in their needs and values, which can be understood better with the help of behavioral science. Behavioral science considers the influence of various social, economic and technical elements of the complex external environment on people's behavior. It improves people's understanding of interpersonal skills and so also their ability to work together as a team to achieve organizational goals effectively. Organizations comprise of human beings who are highly complex and unpredictable in nature. The management of organizations is therefore a challenging task. Increasing diversity, knowledge and information explosion, strategic partnership, global competition and emphasis on total quality management are the other challenges confronting managers in the modern times ((ICMR)). To meet these challenges, managers require cooperation from individual employees and their work groups who often resist change. So, for an effective management of organizations, an in-depth study of the behavior of individuals within workgroups, including an analysis of the nature of workgroups is required. One such study is "organizational behavior." Human relations, in a very gene... It deals with the interaction of people in work situation that helps to generate team spirit. Though human relationships have existed since time immemorial, the branch of knowledge dealing with them is relatively recent. Prior to the industrial revolution, people worked in small groups and had simple work relationships. They were, however, subjected to unhealthy working conditions and scarcity of resources, so they hardly had any job satisfaction. During the early stages of the industrial revolution, the conditions of workers showed no signs of improvement. But as increased industrial activity led to greater supply of goods, wages, working conditions, and level of job satisfaction gradually improved. Until the early 1900s, workers were made to work in inhuman conditions. The importance of human element in organization was first realized by Fredrick W. Taylor. Taylor is also known as "the father of scientific management" and his contributions to the field of management were useful for the later development of the field of organizational behavior. His studies helped improve the working conditions of industrial workers and were instrumental in enhancing the productivity of the organization. He propounded sound management practices by stressing on division of labor and scientific selection, placement and training of workers. Taylor was also instrumental in introducing the differential piece rate system in organizations. According to Taylor, specific scientific methods could help people perform their jobs effectively and efficiently. Taylor emphasized technical efficiency and mass production in organizations. However, certain aspects of interpersonal and social behavior that included
Monday, September 23, 2019
Content Analysis - Essay Example The employees who had worked for more than five years were pretty satisfied with the hospital as a workplace. However, the young and ambitious crowd, which had been there for a short period was not very happy with the workplace, and hardly found it exciting. Unanimously, the answer was the cleanliness in the hospital and the professional attitude of everyone around. Some respondents from housekeeping said they liked the work because unlike hotels, where guests could check in and check out at any time of the day, there were not many patients checking out at odd hours in this workplace. Instead, most of them checked out in the late mornings. A few were happy about the pay, while a few part-timers were not so happy with it. The majority felt that there was inflexibility in the job roles and they should be given a chance to rotate and have a stint in other departments too. The distance between the carpark and the building was another grouse. Most of them felt that the parking should have been closer to the place of work. Some felt that the doctors were high handed in their behaviour towards them. Most of them felt that they would have been able to perform better if they had been able to interact with the higher management and not just their immediate seniors. A few new comers (most probably the younger lot) seemed not to be able to fit in their roles and were complaining about their colleagues and superiors. Most of them spoke about the sad atmosphere and the dull environment in the canteen. Q4. If you were the boss, what would you change to make it better Each had a different answer to this question. While one wanted to have better tools and equipment for working, another one wanted to raise the pay for evening shift workers. A few wanted to sack their bosses, while one wanted a four-day week. Another suggestion was of a rotation of jobs. Someone suggested brighter colours for the canteen furniture and also provision for playing music. Another respondent wanted to change the colour of the uniforms. Some wanted to give the employees a choice for the shifts, if they were the boss. One of the respondents wanted to keep training programmes for fresh recruits. Q5. Do you have anything else to say None of them had anything much to say. Only one respondent said that he wished he had a complete day off and not be called on weekends too sometimes. Findings and Conclusions Going through the transcript, one can make out that while each of the employees, past and present, appreciated the cleanliness and professionalism in the hospital, not many of them were actually motivated to continue working there. The attitude of their superiors, the sad atmosphere around the place, the cold furniture in the canteen and the distance from the parking lot put them off. It seems many of them wanted to have more flexibility in their roles and
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Main functions of GO4IT Sports Essay * The company has a warehouse which supplies goods to shops as well as to sports teams by mail order * The company sells a wide range of sports goods in it shops this includes clothing, footwear and equipment for sports. * The shops also sell exercise equipment; however these large items are not kept in stock but are ordered from the supplier as required. * The company supplies match strips, to order, in team colours for different sports * The company supplies other team merchandise with team logo; these are supplied through a mail order service. * Sell sports trophies which can be engraved if required. * The company also supplies sports clothing in bulk to schools Different types of customers for GO4IT Sports The companys customers include: * Schools * Sports teams for all sports such as football, rugby, tennis, athletics and golf * General customers * The shops which are supplied by the companys warehouse Describe the functions of each section within the shops and Head Office, paying particular attention to Administration in shops and Human Resources in Head Office Functions of each section within the shops Administration * Each shop has a Branch Manager who has overall responsibility for the running of the shop. * The assistant manager and head of administration section report directly the branch manager. * The staff keeps account of the money taken through the EPOS terminals by comparing money received with EPOS records. * The administration staff produce and send correspondence from the shop as well as receiving correspondence. * Organise for a trophy to be engraved by contacting the local engraver. * Emailing weekly orders for goods to the warehouse * Producing confirmation purchase orders for goods and services * Checking invoices against goods received and work done and passing these to Head Office for payment Clothing sales * The clothing sales section has a clothing sales manager who the clothing sales staff and footwear sales staff report to. * Clothing Sales staff assist customers in choosing appropriate clothing and provide advice for those who wish to purchase clothing * The footwear sales staffs assist customers and provide advice for those who wish to purchase footwear. Equipment sales * The Equipment sales section has an Equipment sales manager. The general sales staff and specialist sales staff report to the Equipment sales manager. * The General sales staff operate the EPOS terminals, they scan the barcodes of every items during purchase and handing of receipts. * The Specialist sales staffs provide assistance and specialist advice and information for customers purchasing more advanced equipment. Functions within the Head Office * The Managing Director of GO4IT sports is responsible for all aspects of the day to day running of the business. The two directors which are: sales marketing director and the finance and administration director report to the managing director Sales and Marketing * The sales and marketing director is responsible for the mail order operation as well as advertising and promoting the business * A buying manager is responsible for locating the goods to be sold and negotiating contracts for their supply. * The buying manager ensures the right volume and type of goods are supplied at the right time to maximise profit. Finance and Administration * The Finance and Administration director is responsible for all other functions within the Head Office. This includes administration, Human Resources(HR) and finance * The Administration assistant, HR executive, chief accountant and ICT support executive report to the Finance and Administration director Finance * Keep records of all financial transactions on the head office server, including the income from sales for each shop and mail order, payments for goods purchased, payments for engraving contractors and staff wages. * Records are used to produce monthly and annual accounts for shareholders and Inland Revenue. * Generate VAT (value added tax) returns once a quarter for customs and excise. * Arrange for the amount due to be paid. Human Resource (HR) The functions of the HR Department are; * Staff recruitment and training * Place advertisements for staff * Send out and receive application forms * Organise interviews and provide contracts for successful applicants * Keeping standard personnel records on a database along with records of training courses attended by members of staff and any qualifications they obtain. * Determine what further training each staff member requires and how best to provide it * Book the member of staff on an external training course/ if many members require training organise for a trainer to deliver the course in house. Task1 Identify different types of supplier to the shops and warehouse and describe relationships between these suppliers and the departments/individuals within the company Warehouse Supplier What is supplied Who orders it How and when it is ordered Wholesaler Clothing and footwear Warehouse manager Order is made by fax once a month but can place special order by telephone if stocks of a particular item falls faster then expected Specialist manufacturers Sports equipment Buying Manager The buying manager negotiates contracts at the beginning of each season either by telephone or visit, for the supply of a certain quantity. Shops Supplier What is supplied Who orders it How and when it is ordered Local Engraver (external Contractor) Engraved Trophy Administration Assistant Administration Assistant telephones local engraver. The engraver collects the trophy from the shop with a confirmation purchase order detailing work the required. Warehouse Clothing and footwear Administration staff Branch manager hands an annotated stock list to Administration staff who e-mails warehouse Task 2 An analysis of the processes for recording sales in a shop and for mail order sales in Head Office. Shop Information Required * Product bar code or numerical code if bar code unreadable * Quantity bought * If sale is to be paid by credit card * If paying by cash the Amount to be tendered From where this is obtained and how it is captured * product code by barcode scanner * numerical code keyed in using a keypad * quantity keyed in by till operator * credit card yes/no keyed in The processing and calculations required * look up item in computer * display item name and price on screen * multiply price by quantity * if on sale, reduce total price by 50% * display total on screen * if credit card = yes, generate credit card receipt for signature The form and content of any output * on-screen / display message * paper till receipt * paper credit card receipt * Contains prices. items, sales items highlighted with words ON SALE, store address, time of sale, till operator name Mail Order in Head Office Information Required * Team details e.g. team name, name and address of contact person, the sport, the colour(s) and design of shirt/vest, position of logo e.g. VTL(vest top left), picture of team logo and team number * Product colour * Product quantity required * Product code * Colour code/ X is entered If a non standard colour * Size and number of colours in logo * Amount of deposit paid From where this is obtained and how it is captured * Team details from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Product colour from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Product quantity required from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Product code from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Colour code/ X is entered If a non standard colour from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Size and number of colours in logo from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Amount of deposit paid from completed order form from a mail order brochure entered onto data screen on computer using input devices such as keyboard and mouse * Team logo captured using a scanner and stand alone computer The processing and calculations required * look up item in computer * display item name and price on screen * Calculate price of embroidery by multiplying number of logos by price * multiply price by quantity * Calculate sub total if less than Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½100, Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½5 is added for postage and packaging * Calculate and add VAT to give total price The form and content of any output * on-screen / display message * Invoice * Contains prices. items, store address, store phone and fax number, date of sale, invoice number, team contact person details, sub total, VAT, total, Less deposit, total due. Task 3 Outlining the current ICT systems used by GO4IT Sports, in particular, Finance within Head Office and Administration within a Shop Administration within a shop * Each shop has a number of Electronic Point of Sales (EPOS) terminals with barcode readers and card readers. * Telephone connection to banking system * Small Local Area Network (LAN) of three computers * Laser Printer * Branch managers computer acts as a server * Dial up modem Software used includes * Word processing * Spreadsheet applications Finance within Head Office * Number of workstations * Local are network (LAN) * Single Server * Fast laser printer * Slower laser printer * Bar code reader * ISND line Software used includes * Word processing * Spreadsheet applications * Database management software * Stock control software Task 3 Analysing the purpose and operation of the main ICT systems used for sales in each shop and the ICT systems using within the warehouse Shops * Each shop has an EPOS terminal with barcode readers and card readers. Stock data is held on dedicated server connected to the EPOS terminals. * There is also a telephone connection to the banking system for authorisation of the card payments. * The barcode reader is used to scan the barcode of each item and the product code it contains is used to look the product description and price from stock database * When items are scanned total price is calculated. This includes the VAT, the system calculates the net value of the items, and all of this is printed on the receipt. * If customer pays by cash, member of staff enters the amount tendered; the EPOS terminal calculates the change due. This is printed on receipt and given to customer * If customer wishes to pay by credit or debit card the member of staff swipes the card through the card reader. The card details are checked by the banking system and if the transaction is approved an authorisation code is transmitted to the EPOS terminal. * The authorisation Code and card details and amount debited are printed on receipt which is handed to customer to sign with card and items purchased. Warehouse * Stand alone computer * Scanner * Computer controlled embroidery machine * Workstation * Laser printer * Stock control software has separate screens for incoming and outgoing goods. * All goods have a product code which is contained in a barcode. When goods arrive in the warehouse the barcode of each product is read and the quantity entered via the keyboard. * This data is used to update stock database. * For every order picked up the staff use the barcode reader to input the product code and the keyboard to enter the quantity removed from stock. These items are deducted from stock database. Task 3 Recommending and explaining improvements/ extensions to shop systems Methods for improving stock control and the re-ordering of stock, as well as integration of systems within GO4IT sports. * A dedicated server could be used instead of the branch managers computer acting as a server, if the branch managers computer crashes then that would leave the other computers stranded without a printer and no access to the internet. * ISDN connection would improve communication giving workers a faster connection to send e-mails internally. Dial up connections are not as reliable and are slower so information being sent will be limited due to connection speed of dial up. * There should be a centralised database put into place. This is where all the companys data is held in one place and the computers in the company are networked. This central database can be used by anyone within the company provided they have been given access through a password. This will be a very resourceful way of storing company data, as it will prevent the problem of data duplication. * Sales based ordering where automatic re-ordering takes place of goods from the warehouse using the sales information from the checkouts. * To increase the efficiency of communication between the supplier and GO4IT sports I would recommend the introduction of EDI (electronic data interchange); the system is similar to email and allows users to exchange invoices, delivery notes, orders and receipts over the telephone network. Security * Log in pages requiring a specific unique user name requiring a private password to track who logs on and off to restrict users Possible problems for suggested improvements * One of the problems that may arise is the finance to cover the costs for the installation of the systems in place. * Also addition of new feature will mean that staff are not familiar with it and training for staff will be required. Benefits of using new technology EDI Advantages * It is much faster, as work does not have to be printed, it is on the screen * The EDI system is easy to use and work can be sent off very easily * Information can be sent to other companies, in less then a few minutes instead of days. * The company can be linked up with their bank, suppliers and customers. * Will minimize the amount of paperwork and business can be transacted much faster and more efficiently then is possible through the normal post. Disadvantages * For EDI, computers are relied on, therefore if the systems go down; it will have a huge of affect on the company. * It is very costly for the installation of EDI * The organization has to research into which system would be best for the company Ecommerce Advantages * Majority of the work of GO4IT sports can be done just through the internet, making it much easier. * This would means a lot less people will have to be employed this will result in huge savings for the company as most transaction will be electronic. * Currently GO4IT sports uses a lot of time to get into contact with suppliers by using the telephone, which can be tedious due to the telephone being engaged; by using e-commerce orders could be automatically electronically sent straight to the suppliers. * Team contacts currently have to post the payment to the company, which is very time consuming and not very secure and with using ecommerce an electronic funds transfer could be made. * Promotion of the company can be improved as it is all online presentation of online advertising can be enhanced. * This will also enable the company to advertise their products online and also allow customers to purchase the products directly from the site using their debit/credit card. They can place the desired items in the virtual shopping trolley. The company can be fully based on the internet, making it easier for the company and also for customers. Disadvantages * A close relationship between the retailer and supplier is required in order for the system to work * Returning products online will prove to be difficult. The customer may be put off when these areas are taken into account. As the customer will question how to send the goods back to their source? Who pays for the return postage? Will the refund be paid? Will I be left with nothing? How long will it take? Compared to offline experience of returning goods to a shop and it is frustrating for the customer. * Privacy, security, payment, identity, contract. Many issues arise privacy of information, security of that information and payment details, whether or not payment details (eg credit card details) will be misused, identity theft, contract, and, whether we have one or not, what laws and legal jurisdiction apply. MIS(management information systems) For the Buying Manager I would recommend the following improvements: * MIS could produce an analysis of patterns of sales in the company * MIS would be able to identify peak production needs * What if type questions could be applied to different patterns of sales The features of the MIS system that could be used by the branch manager are: * Production costs can be based on raw material costs * MIS could be used to carry out analysis automatically * Results could be displayed in graphs which are easy to understand * Monthly graphs could be produced of price comparison with competitors goods or services resulting from regular market research. * Planning, directing, controlling and forecasting decisions. Both managers would benefit from the following points of the MIS system: * Warnings could be set if production costs exceed budget. * Warnings could be set if stocks fall below fixed level.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Economic man vs islamic man Economic Man Vs Islamic Man Abstract Modem economics presents a concept of economic man on the other hand Islam gives the idea of an Islamic man. The former is based on a materialistic approach in which the basic objective of life remains just to get maximum satisfaction and maximum profit or any other form of utility. Man lives only for these objective, which is completely less human level. On the other hand latter is based on believe of Allah and high moral values and present a much better way of life as compare to the former. 1. Introduction The term economic man was first used by Joseph Pseky1. Although it is a new concept in economics, but it is often associated with ideas of 18th century thinkers like Adam Smith and David Recordo etc. No doubt this concept in the raw form can easily be found in the writings of these thinkers, for example in the following quotation of Adam Smith, reflection of this modern concept can easily be found. He writes Ã¢â¬Å"It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner but from their regard to their own interestÃ¢â¬ 2. It means that in a more or less form it was exist, but recently it has taken a concrete form. This concept was developing to show the rational behavior of individual decision making units i.e. a consumer, a firm and an industry. On the same line the concept of an Islamic man can also be drawn from the teachings of Islam. At many places in Quran and Hadith characteristics of momineen are given, with the help of these qualitie s a concept of Islamic man can be derived. The basic objective of this paper is to analyze and compare these two concepts. For this purpose first the characteristics of an economic and Islamic man are discussed and then a comparison is made between these two. 2. An Economics Man The concept of economic man is one of the basic notions of modern economics. It is assumed that each individual in a capitalistic society, whether he / she are a consumer, investor, worker or businessman is motivated by economic forces, hence will always act to obtain the maximum satisfaction for the least sacrifice or cost. This maximum satisfaction take different forms e.g. it may be maximum profit for a businessman, leisure hours for a worker and maximum utility from the consumption of goods for a consumer etc. A consumer, a firm and an industry are the basic individual decision making units in a capitalist economy. Under this concept it is assumed that behavior of these units will be rational. Rational behavior means that, each of this unit wants to maximize his advantage. In the other words, when a consumer decides to purchase something he / she will spent all available resources in such a way that he / she will get maximum satisfaction from these items. If he / she dose the same then their behavior will be rational, and consumer will said to be in equilibrium position. In the other words achievement of maximum satisfaction is the primary goal of a consumer or economic man. In the same way when a firm decides to produce something in response of demand from consumers, then main objective of the firm will be to get maximum profit. For this purpose firm will made all efforts to maximize the difference between cost and selling price, so that she can get maximum profit. It will be rational beh avior of firm / man. The same situation is with industry, which is the collective name of all firms. In the same line a worker wants to maximize his / her leisure and so on. In this whole process there is no concept of God or moral values or the Day of Judgment or benefits of the others. The whole story is just based on me and my interest only, and no room is left for any moral values. Due to this situation an economic man is selfÃ ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬centered and self interested personality and never thinks beyond his self interest3. The approach of economic man is completely materialistic and he / she is always busy in calculation of his / her profit / loss in monetary terms. To get maximum advantage of this worldly life, becomes his / her ultimate aim and do not have any concept of life after this life. This type of thinking naturally restricted his / her life just for today and there is no concept of long term benefits. 3. An Islamic Man The characteristics of an Islamic man can be derived from the qualities of momineen given in Quran and Hadith. At least in Quran more then sixty qualities are given in this regard. The term amale saleha is used for those activities which are required by Quran and Hadith from momineen. An amle saleh is any activity which results on the benefits of others or it creates equilibrium in the society or results on elimination of disequilibrium (Fasad) in the society. Since the limited scope of a paper cannot considerate the narration of all these characteristics, hence only the main qualities of momineen are discussed in following lines. 3.1 Iman (Believe) The first and the most important demand of Islam from momineen is that, they should have believe on Allah, His books, His prophets, angles and the Day of Judgment. It is not the righteousness that ye turn your faces to the east and the west; but the righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the angles and the scripture and the prophets. (2:1 77) This believes create a significant change in his behavior and character, and changed the whole concept of life, and expands the scope of life. Man with iman lives with high moral values. Concept of life hereafter and accountability keeps him away from all bad activities. The activities which are harmful not for the society but also for that person who performs them. 3.2 Consent of Allah According to Quran, the basic objective of the life of momineen is to get the consent of Allah. Thou (0 Muhammad) seest them bowing and falling prostrate (in worship),seeking bounty from Allah and (His) acceptance. (48:29) For this purpose they follow all the orders of Quran and Hadith. 3.3 Fear of the Day of Judgment Another quality of momineen counted in Quran and Hadith is that, momineen keep hard believe on the Day of Judgment and accountability of that Day. This concept put them further away from each and every type of tyranny. 3.4 Living for the Others According to Quran momineen live for the others. They are always ready to sacrifice their current benefits for the betterment of others. Even they are personally needy people but in this condition also they sacrifice for the others. And find in their breasts no need for that which hath been given them but prefer (the refugees)above themselves though poverty become their lot. (59:9) 3.5 No Concept of Reward Quran said, the momineen never have any desire of reward or thanks, they all do it only for the consent of Allah. (Saying) we feed you for the sake of Allah only. We wish for no reward nor thanks from you (76:9,) No materialistic reward is required by them. 3.5 Prohibition of Riba (Interest) Since riba (Interest) is strictly prohibited by Quran Hadith and momineen completely avoid the same, and do not involve in any such type of activity. 3.6 Infaq (Donation) One of the most important quality of momineen is that, they donate all of their income in the way of Allah which is beyond their requirements. And they ask thee what they ought to spend say: that which is beyond your requirement. (2:219) 3.7 Concept of Halal Haram Quran Hadith have restricted momineen from particular type of activities which are termed as haram. Momineen strictly avoid themselves from these actions. 3.8 Care of Poor People of Society In accordance with the orders of Quran Hadith momineen take care of poor people of society. And feed with food the needy wretch the orphan and the prisoner, for consent of Allah. (76:8). These are just a few characteristics of momineen described in Quran and Hadith which are specially mentioned because these are the base of comparison between these two concepts. 4. Comparison Between Economic Man Islamic Man In the light of above discussion it can be said that there is a wide difference between these two concepts. The main points in this regard are as follows. 4.1 Limited Wide Concept The concept of economic man is quite limited, which restricts the man just up-to this materialistic world, whereas an Islamic man has a quite wide horizon. He does not see the life just for this world but hereafter also, which will be a real and long lasting life. 4.2 Animal Human Level Economic man concept presents a just animal level of life, which is restricted to maximum satisfaction, profit or leisure etc., without any moral values. On the other hand Islamic man is a better concept which is based on high moral values and represents a human level of life. 4.3 Selfish and Opulent Way of Life Self benefit is the limit of economic man thinking, he cannot go beyond this boundary. On the other hand the objective of life of an Islamic man is to serve the others for the consent of Allah. 4.4 An Open Restrict Way of Life The economic man is completely free to do anything under the rules of state. No other bindings can be imposed on him. But an Islamic man is under the Devine rules as well as the regulations of state. 4.5 Preference of Today or Tomorrow The former man just believes on benefits of today and he is not ready to sacrifice his today for tomorrow. On the contrast Islamic man is always prefer the advantages of tomorrow by giving up the benefits of today. This is the reason that, a Muslim can easily sacrifice his life in Jehad (Fight in the way of Allah) whereas it is quite difficult for a Non-Muslim. Conclusion On the basis of above discussion it can be said that, the concept of Islamic man is much more superior then economic man. The latter is just a materialistic approach and completely barefoot from moral values. Negation of moral values put the human being on just animal level. This is the reason that, an economic man lives on animal level and just alive to get maximum satisfaction or profit or other advantages. No doubt he gets all these things in this world but in the life hereafter his share will be nil. On the other hand an Islamic man lives with the believe on Allah and high moral values. He lives on human level, he also gets the advantages of this life but with that, he will be in a much better position in the second life.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Importance of Nick Carraway as Narrator of The Great Gatsby Ã In The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald critiques the disillusionment of the American Dream by contrasting the corruption of those who adopt a superficial lifestyle with the honesty of Nick Carraway. As Carraway familiarizes himself with the lives of Tom and Daisy Buchanan, Jordan Baker and Jay Gatsby, he realizes the false seductiveness of the New York lifestyle and regains respect for the Midwest he left behind. "Fitzgerald needs an objective narrator to convey and prove this criticism, and uses Carraway not only as the point of view character, but also as a counter example to the immorality and dishonesty Carraway finds in New York" (Bewley 31). Fitzgerald must construct this narrator as reliable. Due to the nature of the novel, the reader would not believe the story if it were told from the perspective of any other character. Fitzgerald cannot expect the reader to believe what the immoral and careless characters have to say, and he spends so much time establishing them as such. Thus, Car raway is deemed narrator and the reader trusts him. As the practical character in the novel, Carraway is not rash; he is not swayed by the greed and alcohol as some other members of East and West Egg society are. He proclaims, "I have been drunk just twice in my life" (Fitzgerald 33). Fitzgerald constructs Carraway as a follower, not a man of action. He observes Gatsby's parties, never fully experiencing them. He observes the moment before the kiss between the starlet and her director, although Fitzgerald never details the physicality of his relationship with Baker. He observes the affair between Tom Buchanan and Myrtle Wilson, but he never confronts Tom Buchanan, nor does he e... ...y to tell the story, but also to critique the mass disillusionment with the American Dream. Carraway's honesty makes him ideal to represent all that the Buchanans lack and legitimizes his admiration of Gatsby. No reader would consider the full impact of Fitzgerald's themes had less attention been given to the creation and execution of the character of Carraway. Works Cited and Consulted: Bewley, Marius. "Scott Fizgerald's Criticism of America." Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1983. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992. Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Extremes. New York: Pantheon, 1994. Raleigh, John Henry. "F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby." Trilling 99-103. Trilling, Lionel. "F. Scott Fitzgerald." Critical Essays on Scott Fitzgerald's "Great Gatsby." Ed. Scott Donaldson. Boston: Hall, 1984. 13-20.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Just Another Chalk-line Characters: James Enfield Ã¢â¬â Detective (age 38) Lee Ames Ã¢â¬â Detective (age 48) Chris Rollins Ã¢â¬â Detective (age 26) Nolan Eckhart Ã¢â¬â Detective (age 40) Ã¢â¬â Deceased Setting: The scene takes place in an alleyway beside a popular bar named EdwardÃ¢â¬â¢s. There are a few police officers scattered about closing off the area. (Extras during the stage production.) They would leave the stage until the end of the act when the detectives call the coroner to take away the body. James, Lee and Chris are on the site of a murder. The murder in question is of one of their co-workers and friend Nolan Eckhart. They are standing around the body of Nolan; James is kneeling down actually checking on the body. The alley is empty with the exception of the body and a small pile of garbage from the bar. Act One: Scene One ( James is a man nearing forty. His build is average; he has light skin and dark hair. He is sensible and caring enough for his partners. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s dismayed that Nolan has been killed. They were close friends in the office. Lee has been around for a while nearing his fifties he has been working on the force for twenty years. He is experienced but tired. NolanÃ¢â¬â¢s death is not easy on him either, though he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t show it. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a larger man than James, with a bit of a round gut and his head is affixed with greying and balding hair. Chris is the youngest of the trio; he is the newest member in their office having been transferred from another precinct. He shows promise to be a great detective, in his first few cases in their precinct he has already impressed the chief and was rewarded a raise to his salary. He is more muscular than the other two and his brown hair is cut professionally short.) James: DamnÃ¢â¬ ¦I still canÃ¢â¬â¢t ge... ... Lee, he may not be as useful as he used to be out here in the field, but in the office he still has his purpose. IÃ¢â¬â¢m so glad the chief and I share a similar thought process in all this. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s quite thrilling to be able to practice my forensics skills; just in this case itÃ¢â¬â¢s in reverse. (Notices James returning and stops speaking, leaning against the wall as if his speech moments before never occurred.) James: (Returns from off-stage) CoronerÃ¢â¬â¢s on his way. The officers will watch over the scene. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re officially done for the night. Now, letÃ¢â¬â¢s get warmed up shall we? Chris: Alright then. I feel itÃ¢â¬â¢s going to be quite cold later on, better enjoy it while it lasts. (Both men leave the stage, going inside the bar for drinks. James turns to look at Nolan once last time) James: (sighing ) I still canÃ¢â¬â¢t believe Nolan is dead. Chris: LetÃ¢â¬â¢s go make you forget about it, huh.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
A Doctor in the House Henrik Ibsen's character, Dr. Rank, in "A Doll's House" is an important component of the play, though he is not a lead character. Rank enhances the story in his own right as a character, but mainly serves a greater purpose as an accentuation of Nora'a character. Nora's relationship with Rank is equal, and perhaps it implants in Nora's mind the idea that relationships should be equal. Their relationship brings up questions about social correctness and even the values necessary in a marriage. Essentially, Dr. Rank's purpose is to refine the audience's understanding of Nora's character. Dr. Rank's presence establishes the lack of communication between Nora and her husband. Nora confides in Dr. Rank, involving him in secrets and everyday conversation. For instance, Rank is the first character to be let in on Nora's secret plan to take Helmer on a "vacation," supposedly paid for by her father. Also, Rank refers to Christine Linde as "a name I have often heard in this house," when Helmer is virtually unaware of Linde's existence (Ibsen 542). The quote further indicates Rank and Nora share things in which Helmer is not included. Rank is like a messenger for the couple on one occasion when Nora finds out about Helmer's new job from the doctor. Nora asks Rank, "Tell me Dr. Rank--will everyone who works at the bank come under Torvald now?" (542). These conversations help to conclude that most of Nora's meaningful and informative conversation is not with her own husband. Furthermore, the doctor encourages Nora to confide in him; "You can say it to usÃ¢â¬ ¦say it, here he is," says Rank, urging Nora to do as she wishes around him (542). Nora seems to divulge her thoughts to Rank and not Helmer, relaying an inward struggle in Nora to do as she wishes. She lies to Helmer about the macaroons, but hastily reveals her hidden snack to the doctor. Rank and Nora's relationship shows Nora's longing for independence from Helmer and society's rules. Even Mrs. Linde, a relatively liberated woman, feels Nora's intimate relationship with the doctor is curiously inappropriate. Linde is shocked that Nora would speak with Rank about the debt behind Helmer's back, to which Nora replies, "I've got to get out of this other busine... ...ra's father, and then subsequently, how they see Nora. Ibsen makes the hereditary flaws available in Rank in order to make the theme clear. While Rank's flaws end with his death, Nora's bad traits threaten to rub-off on her children, continuing the line of bad heredity. According to Helmer, Rank's dark life "accentuates the light of their marriage," but the importance of the character, Dr. Rank, is to accentuate the darkness of Nora's life. Rank's life parallels Nora's situation until the role reversal at the end. Throughout the play, both suffer the consequences of morally corrupt fathers; Nora has her secret debt and Rank with his illness. Rank's announcement of death also marks the end of the masquerade, literally and figuratively speaking: Nora's masquerade of a content marriage is over as well as the ball that are her last moments of "fun." Instead of dying when Rank dies, however, Nora is reborn as an independent woman in society. Her situation may again parallel Rank's; there is uncertainty associated with death as there is definite uncertainty as to Nora's fate.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Environmental debasement is a procedure through which the natural environment is compromised in some manner, cut downing biological diverseness and the general wellness of the environment. This procedure can be wholly natural in beginning, or it can be accelerated or caused by human activities. Many international organisations recognize environmental debasement as one of the major menaces confronting the planet, since worlds have merely been given one Earth to work with, and if the environment becomes irreparably compromised, it could intend the terminal of human being. One of the major menace the planet faces today, environmental debasement, is bound to do life hard for all the life signifiers, including human existences, now or subsequently. Surveies by some of the high organisations reveal that the impairment of environment is happening at an dismaying rate. In fact, the High Level Threat Panel of the United Nations has enlisted environmental debasement as one of the 10 menaces fo r us. This issue portions infinite with jobs like poorness, terrorist act and civil war in the list, and this itself highlights the fact that we are heading for a certain catastrophe. It is defined as a procedure wherein the natural environment of the planet is degenerated to such an extent, that the biodiversity and the general wellness of the planet is subjected to drastic decrease. In other words, this phenomenon can be defined as impairment of the Earth Ã¢â¬Ës natural milieus as a consequence of inordinate development of the available resources. These resources include H2O, air, vegetation, zoology, dirt etc. Basically, the life on the planet is interwoven to such an extent that a lessening in a peculiar property triggers a Domino consequence on all the other properties dependent on it. ItA is the devastation ofA ecosystems and the extinction ofA wildlife. It is defined as any alteration or perturbation to the environment perceived to be hurtful or unwanted. Environmental debasement is one of theA Ten ThreatsA officially cautioned by theA High Level Threat PanelA of theA United Nations. Fig,1 Showing pollution from chimneysCauses:Environmental debasement is a consequence of the dynamic inters play of socio-economic, institutional and technological activities. Environmental debasement can be attributed to assorted human activities, every bit good as some natural procedures, with the later holding an undistinguished portion. Most of the resources on the planet are vulnerable to depletion, and the rates at which we are working them have already brought some of them to the threshold of exhaustion. Exploitation of theA dodo fuelsA is the best illustration of this phenomenon. Large scale development has depleted the dodo fuel militias across the universe, therefore go forthing us with no option but to happen an alternate beginning of energy. Other human activities which have been lending to environmental debasement include urbanisation, overpopulation, A deforestation, pollution, hunting, etc. Environmental alterations may be driven by many factors including economic growing, population growing, urbanisation, intensification of agribusiness, lifting energy usage and transit. Poverty still remains a job at the root of several environmental jobs.Social Factors:PopulationPopulation is an of import beginning of development, yet it is a major beginning of environmental debasement when it exceeds the threshold bounds of the support systems. Unless the relationship between the multiplying population and the life support system can be stabilized, development programmes, howsoever, advanced are non likely to give coveted consequences. Population impacts on the environment chiefly through the usage of natural resources and production of wastes and is associated with environmental emphasiss like loss of biodiversity, air and H2O pollution and increased force per unit area on cultivable land. Fig.2 Population in India India supports 17 per cent of the universe population on merely 2.4 per cent of universe land country. Its current rate of population growing at 1.85 per cent continues to present a relentless population challenge. In position of the linkages between population and environment, a vigorous thrust for population control need barely be over emphatic.PovertyPoverty is said to be both cause and consequence of environmental debasement. The round nexus between poorness and environment is an highly complex phenomenon. Inequality may further unsustainability because the hapless, who rely on natural resources more than the rich, deplete natural resources faster as they have no existent chances of deriving entree to other types of resources. Furthermore, degraded environment can speed up the procedure of poverty, once more because the hapless depend straight on natural assets. Although there has been a important bead in the poorness ratio in the state from 55 per centum in 1973 to 36 per centum in 1993-94, the absolute figure of hapless have, nevertheless, remained changeless at around 320 million over the old ages. Acceleration in poorness relief is imperative to interrupt this nexus between poorness and the environment.UrbanizationLack of chances for paid employment in small towns and the ecological emphasiss is taking to an of all time increasing motion of hapless households to towns. Mega metropoliss are emerging and urban slums are spread outing. There has been an octuple addition in urban population over 1901-1991. During the past two decennaries of 1971-91, India Ã¢â¬Ës urban population has doubled from 109 million to 218 million and is estimated to make 300 million by 2000 AD. Such rapid and unplanned enlargement of metropoliss has resulted in debasement of urban environment. It has widened the spread between demand and supply of infrastructural services such as energy, lodging, conveyance, communicating, instruction, H2O supply and sewage and recreational comfortss, therefore consuming the cherished environmental resource base of the metropoliss. The consequence is the turning tendency in impairment of air and H2O quality, coevals of wastes, the proliferation of slums and unwanted land usage alterations, all of which contribute to urban poorness.Economic FactorsTo a big extent, environmental debasement is the consequence of market failure, that is, the non existent or ill functioning markets for environmental goods and services. In this context, environmental debasement is a peculiar instance of ingestion or production outwardnesss reflected by divergency between private and societal costs ( or benefits ) . Lack of good defined belongings rights may be on e of the grounds for such market failure. On the other manus, Market deformations created by monetary value controls and subsidies may worsen the accomplishment of environmental aims. The degree and form of economic development besides affect the nature of environmental jobs. India Ã¢â¬Ës development aims have systematically emphasized the publicity of policies and programmes for economic growing and societal public assistance. Between 1994-95 and 1997-98, the Indian economic system has grown a small over 7 per cent per annum: the growing of industrial production and fabrication averaging higher at 8.4 per cent and 8.9 per cent severally during these old ages. The fabricating engineering adopted by most of the industries has placed a heavy burden on environment particularly through intensive resource and energy usage, as is apparent in natural resource depletion ( fossil fuel, minerals, lumber ) , H2O, air and land taint, wellness jeopardies and debasement of natural eco-systems. With high proportion dodo fuel as the chief beginning of industrial energy and major air fouling industries such as Fe and steel, fertilisers and cement growth, industrial beginnings ha ve contributed to a comparatively high portion in air pollution. Large measures of industrial and risky wastes brought approximately by enlargement of chemical based industry have compounded the wastes direction job with serious environmental wellness deductions. Conveyance activities have a broad assortment of effects on the environment such as air pollution, noise from route traffic and oil spills from marine transportation. Transport substructure in India has expanded well in footings of web and services. Thus, route conveyance histories for a major portion of air pollution burden in metropoliss such as Delhi. Port and harbor undertakings chiefly impact on sensitive coastal eco systems. Their building affects hydrology, surface H2O quality, piscaries, coral reefs and Rhizophora mangles to changing grades. Direct impacts of agricultural development on the environment arise from farming activities which contribute to dirty eroding, land salination and loss of foods. The spread of green revolution has been accompanied by over development of land and H2O resources, and usage of fertilisers and pesticides have increased many fold. Switching cultivation has besides been an of import cause of land debasement. Leaching from extended usage of pesticides and fertilisers is an of import beginning of taint of H2O organic structures. Intensive agribusiness and irrigation contribute to set down debasement peculiarly salination, alkalization and H2O logging.Institutional FactorsThe Ministry of Environment & A ; Forests ( MOEF ) in the Government is responsible for protection, preservation and development of environment. The Ministry works in close coaction with other Ministries, State Governments, Pollution Control Boards and a figure of scientific and proficient establishments, universities, non-Go vernmental organisations etc. Environment ( Protection ) Act, 1986 is the cardinal statute law regulating environment direction. Other of import statute laws in the country include the Forest ( Conservation ) Act, 1980 and the Wildlife ( Protection ) Act, 1972. The failing of the bing system lies in the enforcement capablenesss of environmental establishments, both at the Centre and the province. There is no effectual coordination amongst assorted Ministries/Institutions sing integrating of environmental concerns at the inception/planning phase of the undertaking. Current policies are besides fragmented across several Government bureaus with differing policy authorizations. Lack of trained forces and comprehensive database delay many undertakings. Most of the State Government establishments are comparatively little enduring from insufficiency of proficient staff and resources. Although overall quality of Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) surveies and the effectual execution of the EIA procedure have improved over the old ages ; institutional beef uping steps such as preparation of cardinal professionals and staffing with proper proficient individuals are needed to do the EIA process a more effectual instrument for environment protection and sustainable development.Habitat FragmentationHabitat atomization carries long term environmental impacts some of which can destruct full ecosystems. An ecosystem is a distinguishable unit and includes all the life and inanimate elements that reside within it. Plants and animate beings are obvious members, but it will besides include other constituents on which they rely on such as watercourses, lakes, and dirts. Habitats become disconnected when development breaks up solid stretches of land. Examples include roads which may cut through woods or even trails which wind through prairies. While it may non sound all bad on the surface, there are serious effects. Some wildlife species require big stretches of land in order to run into all of their demands for nutrient, home ground, and other resources. These animate beings are called country medium. When the environment is fragmented, the big spots of home ground no longer exist. It becomes more hard for the wildlife to acquire the resources they to last, perchance going threatened or endangered. The environment suffers without the animate beings that play their function in the nutrient web. A more critical consequence is land perturbation. Many weedy works species such as garlic mustard and violet loosestrife are both timeserving and invasive. A breach in the home ground gives them an chance to take clasp. These aggressive workss can take over an environment, displacing the native vegetation. The consequence is habitat with a individual dominant works which does n't supply adequate nutrient resources for all the wildlife. Entire ecosystems are threatened with extinction. Some weeds are so invasive and aggressive that they are declared noxious by the federal or province authoritiess to forestall them from destructing good countries. The cultivation or even the sale of noxious weeds is prohibited by jurisprudence. Soil eroding and desertification: A The development of the fertile top-soil takes centuries. But, it can be removed really easy due to human activities like over-cultivation, unrestricted graze, deforestation and hapless irrigation patterns, ensuing in waterless spots of land. When big waste spots extend and run into over clip, a desert is created. Internationally, it has been recognized that desertification is a major job presents, peculiarly due to increased urbanisation.Water logging and dirt salt:Irrigation without proper drainage of H2O leads to H2O logging in the dirt. Besides impacting the harvests, H2O logging draws salt to the surface of the dirt. The salt so is deposited as a thin crust on the land surface or starts roll uping at the roots of the plants.A A A A A This increased salt content is unfriendly to the growing of harvests and is highly detrimental to agriculture. A Water logging and dirt salt are some of the jobs that have come in the aftermath of the Green Revolution. Inappropriate land usage can take to dirty debasement. Bad farming techniques are frequently responsible for land debasement. Leaving Fieldss bare, or plowing them up and down the sides of a hill can do terrible dirt eroding when it rains to a great extent as the dirt has nil maintaining it in topographic point. When the left over parts of harvests and carnal manure are ploughed back into the dirt they serve to refill and fertilise it. However, if the harvests are cut to be fed to animate beings and the manure is burnt as a fuel, the dirt will hold no manner of refilling itself, and lessenings in birthrate. Sometimes landholders make alterations in the manner they use the land in an effort to do the land more productive, but frequently these alterations damage the land and really do it less productive.Effectss:When mills produce harmful chemicals and toxic waste into organic structures of H2O, worlds suffer. Pesticides and fertilisers can besides acquire into a part Ã¢â¬Ës H2O system and foul it. Drinking H2O is contaminated. Some shacking in third-world states are extremely affected by the debasement of our planet and these unhealthy patterns cause the followers: Illnesss Death in kids Death in grownups More late environmental debasement effects are going more and more obvious in signifier of scope ofA environmental issuesA impacting the planet. The risky waste let out by the industries tends to pollute the H2O organic structures in the locality, therefore go forthing the H2O unfit for imbibing. Similarly, A nursery gases, such as Chlorofluorocarbons and C dioxide, allow out in the ambiance have a annihilating consequence on the environment, therefore doing the planet vulnerable to a scope of jobs, includingA planetary warmingA andA clime alteration. Worlds have rarely sacrificed their basic necessities, but recently development of resources to carry through these basic necessities itself is taking a toll on the environment.The effects of the major environmental jobs on both wellness and productiveness are:a. Water pollution and H2O scarceness: As per the appraisal of UN, more than two million deceases and one million millions of unwellnesss a twelvemonth are attributable to H2O pollution. Water scarceness compounds these wellness jobs. Productivity is affected by the costs of supplying safe H2O, by restraints on economic activity caused by H2O deficits, and by the inauspicious effects of H2O pollution and deficits on other environmental resources such as, worsening piscaries and aquifer depletion taking to irreversible compression. Fig. 3 Water pollutionb.A Air pollution:As per the appraisal of UN, urban air pollution is responsible for 300,000-700,000 deceases yearly and creates chronic wellness jobs for many more people. Restrictions on vehicles and industrial activity during critical periods affect productiveness, as does the consequence of acid rain on woods and H2O organic structures.c.A Solid and risky wastes:Diseases are spread by ungathered refuse and blocked drains ; the wellness hazards from risky wastes are typically more localised, but frequently acute. Wastes affect productiveness through the pollution of groundwater resources.d.A Soil debasement:Depleted soils addition the hazards of malnutrition for husbandmans. Productivity losingss on tropical dirts are estimated to be in the scope of 0.5-1.5 per cent of GNP, while secondary productiveness losingss are due to siltation of reservoirs, transit channels and other hydrologic investings. Fig. 4 Land debasemente. Deforestation:Death and disease can ensue from the localised implosion therapy caused by deforestation. Loss of sustainable logging possible and of eroding bar, watershed stableness and C segregation provided by woods are among the productiveness impacts of deforestation.f. Loss of biodiversity:The extinction of works and animate being species will potentially impact the development of new drugs ; it will cut down ecosystem adaptability and lead to the loss of familial resources.g. Atmospheric alterations:Ozone depletion is responsible for possibly 300,000 extra instances of tegument malignant neoplastic disease a twelvemonth and 1.7 million instances of cataracts. Global heating may take to increase in the hazard of climatic natural catastrophes. Productivity impacts may include sea-rise harm to coastal investings, regional alterations in agricultural productiveness and break of the marine nutrient concatenation.h. Poverty:In many states in Africa, harvest c rops are falling as ingestion additions. Peoples are happening less alimentary nutrient to eat. One statement held is that while Fieldss in wealthier states are used to turn harvests forA biofuel, poorer states, particularly those around the Equator, are vulnerable to endure alterations, H2O deficits, and urbanisation. All of these factors are increasing the wellness and lives of 1000s. Some scientists and conservationists are inquiring that non-food points and agribusiness waste be used as alternate fuel for vehicles alternatively.i.Losing Earth Ã¢â¬Ës Beauty:As worlds dump waste merchandises, usage chemicals, and over fish in the oceans and seas, countries of beauty such asA coral reefsA are damaged. At times the devastation is so great that is can non be reversed. We are killing our planet and the effects are enormous. One illustration of this lies within the seashore lands of Thailand. Here marine and coastal resources at hazard. Vast countries of Rhizophora mangle wetlands have been lost. Coral reefs continue to endure debasement, and the entire fish available for catching is worsening. Not merely is the debasement doing Marine and coastal resources to be lost, but this issue holds big economic jobs. When there are non plenty fish to catch, fishermen are without income to back up themselves and their households. In some coastal towns, the shores are gnawing at a rate of one to five metres per twelvemonth. This consequences in an one-year loss of more than six billion ticals ( $ 150 million ) in economic footings.Decision:A The impact of environmental catastrophes can be lay waste toing on the societal, economic, and environmental systems of a state or part every bit good as the planetary ecosystem. Environmental catastrophes do non acknowledge semisynthetic boundary lines, and endanger the beques t left to future coevalss of a clean and supportive environment. Because of the mutuality of Earth ecosystems international co-operation is paramount to forestall, and when catastrophe work stoppages, respond to alleviate rapidly and efficaciously the effects of environmental catastrophes. Therefore, Governments, International organisations and communities must work together Ã¢â¬â at all degrees Ã¢â¬â to decrease the hazards associated with environmental debasement and its contributing factors, such as clime alteration, and guarantee that vulnerable people are prepared to last and accommodate. At the same clip, companies, organisations and persons must besides guarantee that their work is environmentally friendly and sustainable.Types of environmental debasement:There are many different types of environmental debasement. Some of the chief types in Namibia are soil eroding, deforestation, bush invasion, desertification and salinisation. Soil eroding Soil eroding is the gradual have oning off of dirt by either physical dislocation or chemical solution which is so transported away by agencies of H2O, air current or ice to another location. Soil eroding is the taking cause of harm to our dirts, go forthing them wastes and finally less productive. It can take centuries to make merely a few centimetres of dirt and merely a few minutes to destruct the same few centimetres. Today the rate of eroding has been speeded up by human activities. Consequently doing dirt eroding an ever-increasing job. Soil eroding consequences from the ways that people use the land. Practices such as tree felling cause deforestation, and can take to dirty eroding. The removed trees would normally guard the dirt from rain and air current as their roots hold the dirt in topographic point. Additionally many land proprietors cut down trees to make infinite in which to works harvests and rise animate beings which finally can take to dirty eroding.Soil salinisationThis is a type of environmental debasement that is peculiarly common in of course dry countries that undergo irrigation and do non let for any fallow periods for the land to retrieve. Irrigati on strategies are set up to supply a changeless flow of H2O to dry lands so that harvests can be grown. However when irrigation systems are severely designed the consequences can be black. The irrigation causes the water-table degree to lift conveying natural salts to the surface. The salts cause jobs as they restrict the root activity of the works and hence decelerate down its growing. In countries with high rates of vaporization the salts go even more concentrated. The concluding consequence is that the dirts are excessively piquant for workss to be able to turn in them and the debauched land has to be abandoned. Soils which have been affected by salinisation are really hard and expensive to rehabilitate and frequently remain fresh and abandoned.DesertificationDesertification occurs when productive lands are turned into non-productive desert as a consequence of hapless land-management. This by and large occurs in semi-arid countries such as Namibia. ( See the Information Sheet on Desertification )DeforestationThis is the lasting devastation of autochthonal woods and forests which consequences in a loss of natural resources every bit good as a protective barrier for surface soil. ( See the Information Sheet on Deforestation )Bush InvasionBush invasion happens where woody flora gets so thick that it threatens farming lands. Bush invasion happens because woody flora and grasses have different growing rates taking the woody flora to take over and r ule a piece of land. Before the debut of domestic farm animal, the balance between grasses and woody flora would hold been kept in cheque by fires and game. This would hold resulted in an African Savannah dominated by grass with merely a few scattered trees. With the debut of farm animal the balance was upset. Most of the game was eliminated and selective grazers were brought in. Fire eruptions have besides been eliminated every bit far as possible due to human intercession. This means that grasses are to a great extent eaten but the trees which are normally controlled by fires, continue to turn. The consequence is a displacement in the balance in favour of trees and woody flora. Since the growing of grass is limited the dirt is mostly left bare doing it particularly susceptible to dirty eroding by air current and H2O. The sedimentations of foods are hence progressively found merely under trees and shrubs, doing it hard for grasses to turn. Finally the grasses cease to vie for H2O and decease out. Most of Namibia Ã¢â¬Ës best agriculture lands are bush encroached. As a effect the land supports less and less livestock per hectare as the woody flora additions. It becomes more hard for the cowss to travel in or amongst the shrubs in hunt for grazing lands. The bulk of valuable foods and H2O in the dirt are so taken up by the infringing shrub and the grasses can non entree them.Loss of biodiversityLoss of biodiversity is a decrease in the assortment of works and carnal species. In countries where environmental debasement has occurred there is frequently a loss of biodiversity as a consequence of the break to the ecosystem. However the loss of biodiversity itself can be considered a signifier of environmental debasement. The scope of familial makeup ( works and carnal assortments ) in a peculiar country can be considered to be a natural resource and is of import in keeping a healthy environment. The biodiversity of an country can diminish as a consequence of pollution, poaching, spread outing agribusiness and urbanisation. Sometimes there is a direct decrease in the figure of a peculiar species which itself if being threatened, but more frequently it is as a consequence of a break in the ecosystem and nutrient concatenation, which causes a Domino consequence, impacting a greater figure of beings.HOW TO STOP ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION:Legislations:Assorted Torahs has been framed in India for the protection of environment and some of these are cited below-A I ) Section 268 to 290 of Indian Penal Code trades with public nuisances. Public nuisance means pollution of air, H2O, blasting, inordinate fume, crud and other polluting activities.A two ) Section 133 and 143 of Code of Criminal Procedure Code and Section 91 of Code of Civil Procedure envisages that a individual may near a Magistrate and District Judge severally by registering a ailment or request about the public nuisance. three ) Under Law of Torts, particular harm can be claimed from nuisance maker/violator of environment. four ) The Water ( Prevention and Control of Pollution ) Act'1974, V ) The Environment Protection Act'1986, six ) Wildlife ( Protection ) Act'1972, seven ) The Air ( Prevention and Control of Pollution ) Act'1981, eight ) The Prevention of Cruelty of Animals Act'1960, nine ) The National Environment Tribunal Act'1995. Problem of pollution is the result of urbanisation, overpopulation and industrialisation. In modern times, hence, it needs more effectual legal sentiments to counter the above. Consequently Indian parliament passed The Environment Protection Act'1986 to safeguard the environmental debasement. The Indian Penal Code has few commissariats on the topic, but they are uneffective when faced with the jobs of an industrialised society. The first job to pull the attending of certain province statute law in India was H2O pollution. But it was merely in 1974 that a Central Act was enacted on the topic to be followed by The Water ( Prevention and Control of Pollution ) Cess Act'1977 and thenceforth most drastic jurisprudence had been enacted as Environment ( Protection ) Act'1986. India foremost got the gustatory sensation of environmental catastrophe by two calamities that befell India Ã¢â¬â the Bhopal catastrophe in 1984 and Sri Ram Fertilizer Plant leak in 1985. The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster ( Processing of claims ) Act'1985 gave the Cardinal Government the exclusive authorization to stand for ( in judicial proceeding ) the victims of Bhopal for compensation claims against the Union Carbide Company. Sri Ram gas Leak did non bring forth legislative activity but prompted Mr. M.C.Mehta ( On behalf of Hindustani Andolon ) and certain other organisations to get down to utilize the effectual legal tool in the signifier of Public Interest Litigation ( PIL ) . This gave the Supreme Court an chance to pronounce certain of import philosophy on civil wrong jurisprudence, corporate jurisprudence ( peculiarly the civil liability of managers for wrongs committed by the corporate organic structure ) . Recently, Supreme Court has loosely and liberally interpreted the Article 21 and transgressed into the country of protection of environment and held that the protection of environment and citizen Ã¢â¬Ës right to populate in eco-friendly atmosphere interpreted as the basic right guaranteed under Article 21. Recently to extenuate the demands of environment related judicial proceeding, Ã¢â¬Å" Green Benches Ã¢â¬ had been constituted in many High Courts in the Country. Some of the undermentioned determinations of Supreme Court of India has a great branching towards the protection and safeguarding the environment and keep the ecological balance. At one point of clip, the harm caused to the environment reaches a phase wherein the environment ca n't achieve the needed balance on its ain. In such a state of affairs, we worlds need to step in, and guarantee that the harm is curbed, and the balance is attained. Simple steps, such as preservation of electricity, use ofA alternate energy beginnings, avoiding the usage of things that pollute the environment, A dirt conservationA etc. , can assist in salvaging the environment from the menace of debasement. Environmentalists, the universe over, are seeking their best to salvage our environment, and we need to make our spot to do certain that they win. The demand of the hr is to place the causes of environmental debasement, and extinguish them one by one. We need to understand the fact that we are a portion of the interlacing life system on the planet, and any jobs, like environmental debasement andA environmental pollution, are bound to impact us straight or indirectly. Though the catastrophe is non expected to go on tomorrow or a hundred old ages from now, that does n't intend it will ne'er go on at all. That being said, the burden is on us Ã¢â¬â the most intelligent species on the planet, to do certain that such jobs are kept at bay.Stairss we can take:There are ways which we can assist to diminish debasement in our environment. Some of these include: Purchase recycled merchandises Conserve H2O Do non litter or flip waste into inappropriate topographic points Conserve energy Join an consciousness group Talk with others about the impacts of environmental debasement Be an advocator to salvage our planet! Reach Your GovernmentA Ã¢â¬â Tell your local functionaries that you want information on the community Ã¢â¬Ës H2O supply and local defilers. Make certain functionaries recognize your right to cognize about your H2O supply. Dispose of Hazardous Waste Ã¢â¬â Make certain that risky waste is decently disposed of, non merely left around or placed with other refuse. Do n't Dump Chemicals Ã¢â¬â Never pour toxic substances down the drain. Although H2O is cleaned, metropoliss do non hold the equipment to extinguish all toxic substances from the H2O supply. Find Your Water Ã¢â¬Ës Source Ã¢â¬â Learn about where your community Ã¢â¬Ës H2O comes from. Keep a close oculus on this H2O beginning and encourage others to make the same. Read Well Reports Ã¢â¬â Community good operators frequently produce supervising studies on the safety of local Wellss. Ask the operators to give you a transcript of these stuffs and remain up-to-date on your Wellss. Substitute Substances Ã¢â¬â You can do your ain non-toxic versions of many popular merchandises, such as insect repellants. Making so prevents the toxic chemicals found in these merchandises from come ining the environment and the H2O supply.